The Taxonomicon
Home
Site map | Contact
Under construction
Node-based clade: Class Aves Linnaeus, 1758 - birds (bird)
Classification by:

Natura - nature
Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1748: 210; Count: 13k;96p;818c;1458o;9546f;109,915g;221,504s;24,393ss;2107v;35,667;111e; ‡3o;15f;117g;521s;91ss;1v;7; †5p;75c;511o;2677f;13,591g;4468s;122ss;1v;393
   actualia - actual entities
  Ref: A. Voltolini, 2006: 44 (note 19) [assumed position]; Count: 13k;96p;818c;1458o;9546f;109,915g;221,503s;24,393ss;2107v;35,667;111e; ‡3o;15f;117g;521s;91ss;1v;7; †5p;75c;511o;2677f;13,591g;4468s;122ss;1v;393
     Mundus Plinius - physical world
    Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1758: 5 [indirect position]; Count: 13k;96p;818c;1458o;9546f;109,915g;221,503s;24,393ss;2107v;35,665;111e; ‡3o;15f;117g;521s;91ss;1v;7; †5p;75c;511o;2677f;13,591g;4468s;122ss;1v;393
       naturalia - natural bodies
      Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1758: 6 [implicit position]; Count: 7k;96p;818c;1458o;9470f;109,905g;221,079s;24,393ss;2076v;8; ‡3o;15f;117g;521s;91ss;1v; †5p;75c;511o;2677f;13,591g;4468s;122ss;1v
         Biota
        Ref: Count: [p] 5k;96p;343c;1450o;9470f;109,862g;218,820s;24,391ss;2048v;8; ‡3o;15f;117g;521s;91ss;1v; †5p;75c;510o;2677f;13,582g;4428s;122ss;1v
           "neomura"
          Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2002b: 297; Count: 5k;67p;283c;1312o;9041f;107,034g;205,196s;23,986ss;2030v;2; ‡3o;15f;117g;521s;91ss;1v; †5p;75c;510o;2676f;13,575g;4419s;122ss;1v
             Domain Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 - eukaryotes
            Ref: P.M. Kirk et al., 2008: 248 [indirect position]; Count: 5k;62p;273c;1292o;9008f;106,910g;204,752s;23,986ss;2030v;2; ‡3o;15f;117g;521s;91ss;1v; †5p;75c;510o;2676f;13,575g;4419s;122ss;1v
               "neokaryotes" - mitochondrial eukaryotes
              Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: 116 [inferred position]; Count: 4k;61p;269c;1284o;9002f;106,692g;204,579s;23,979ss;2030v;2; ‡3o;15f;117g;521s;91ss;1v; †5p;75c;510o;2673f;13,481g;4333s;116ss;1v
                 "neozoa"
                Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: fig. 2; Count: 4k;60p;263c;1276o;8991f;106,655g;204,524s;23,979ss;2030v;2; ‡3o;15f;117g;521s;91ss;1v; †5p;75c;510o;2673f;13,481g;4333s;116ss;1v
                   "scotokaryotes" Cavalier-Smith, 1999
                  Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith et al., 2015: 357 [emended diagnosis] [indirect position]; Count: 2k;44p;152c;756o;7022f;85,462g;183,602s;23,455ss;510v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †5p;70c;463o;2334f;10,759g;4020s;96ss;1v
                     "podiates" Cavalier-Smith, 2013
                    Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith et al., 2015: 357 [new position]; Count: [p] 2k;42p;146c;742o;6986f;85,347g;183,443s;23,455ss;510v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †5p;70c;463o;2334f;10,759g;4020s;96ss;1v
                       Amorphea Adl et al., 2012
                      Ref: S.M. Adl et al., 2012: table 1 (p. 430) [new taxon] [indirect position]; Count: [p] 2k;42p;143c;739o;6981f;85,338g;183,430s;23,455ss;510v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †5p;70c;463o;2334f;10,759g;4020s;96ss;1v
                         Opisthokonta Cavalier-Smith, 1987
                        Ref: E.J. van Nieukerken, 2010: 98 [indirect position]; Count: [p] 2k;40p;133c;707o;6906f;85,091g;182,960s;23,453ss;506v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †5p;70c;463o;2334f;10,759g;4019s;96ss;1v
                           Holozoa
                          Ref: E.J. van Nieukerken, 2010: 101; Count: [p] 1k;33p;91c;547o;6312f;77,420g;181,026s;23,445ss;483v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †5p;70c;463o;2334f;10,746g;4018s;96ss;1v
                             filozoa Shalchian-Tabrizi, Minge, Espelund, Orr, Ruden, Jakobsen & Cavalier-Smith, 2008
                            Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: 156 [inferred position]; Count: 1k;33p;90c;545o;6305f;77,400g;181,004s;23,445ss;483v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †5p;70c;463o;2334f;10,746g;4018s;96ss;1v
                               Kingdom Animalia Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
                              Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: 156 [implicit position]; Count: 33p;87c;541o;6299f;77,344g;180,936s;23,445ss;482v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †5p;70c;463o;2334f;10,746g;4018s;96ss;1v
                                 Epitheliozoa Ax, 1996
                                Ref: C. Nielsen, 2001: fig. 2.5; Count: [p] 32p;83c;514o;6159f;76,615g;180,574s;23,430ss;479v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †4p;65c;436o;2116f;9554g;3787s;96ss;1v
                                   Eumetazoa Bütschli, 1910 - eumetazoans
                                  Ref: C. Nielsen, 2001: fig. 2.5; Count: [p] 31p;83c;514o;6158f;76,613g;180,572s;23,430ss;479v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †4p;65c;436o;2116f;9554g;3787s;96ss;1v
                                     Bilateria Hatschek, 1888 - bilaterians
                                    Ref: E.J. van Nieukerken, 2010: 111; Count: [p] 28p;73c;479o;5879f;75,616g;179,523s;23,421ss;463v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;517s;91ss;1v; †3p;58c;422o;2096f;9415g;3676s;96ss;1v
                                       Superphylum Deuterostomia Grobben, 1908 - deuterostomes
                                      Ref: J.S. Nelson et al., 2016: 13 [indirect position]; Count: [p] 4p;20c;192o;1237f;10,522g;61,718s;11,234ss;308v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;413s;83ss;1v; †1p;28c;255o;1038f;7322g;2219s;74ss
                                         [crown] Phylum Chordata Bateson, 1885 - chordates
                                        Ref: J.S. Nelson et al., 2016: 13; Count: 9c;149o;1052f;9888g;61,305s;11,226ss;306v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;413s;83ss;1v; †7c;203o;1017f;7181g;2167s;69ss
                                           Subphylum Vertebrata Cuvier, 1812 - vertebrates
                                          Ref: M.A. Ruggiero et al., 2015: table 2 (p. 48); Count: [fc] 6c;142o;1028f;9803g;61,151s;11,222ss;306v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;413s;83ss;1v; †7c;203o;1017f;7176g;2166s;69ss
                                             [crown] Myopterygii - myopterygians
                                            Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 30 [implicit position]; Count: 5c;140o;1024f;9788g;61,032s;11,222ss;306v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;413s;83ss;1v; †5c;188o;1006f;6855g;2154s;67ss
                                               Superclass Gnathostomata Zittel, 1879 - jawed vertebrates
                                              Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 16; Count: 5c;140o;1024f;9788g;61,032s;11,222ss;306v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;413s;83ss;1v; †2c;179o;981f;6777g;2146s;67ss
                                                 Grade Teleostomi Bonaparte, 1836
                                                Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 82; Count: 4c;126o;970f;9593g;59,874s;11,220ss;306v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;413s;83ss;1v; †1c;144o;893f;6493g;2083s;67ss
                                                   Euteleostomi - bony vertebrates
                                                  Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 86; Count: 4c;126o;970f;9593g;59,874s;11,220ss;306v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;413s;83ss;1v; †141o;883f;6435g;2073s;67ss
                                                     Sarcopterygii Romer, 1955
                                                    Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 17 [inferred rank]; Count: 3c;67o;505f;5068g;31,870s;10,681ss;303v;1; ‡3o;15f;113g;392s;79ss;1v; †109o;745f;5976g;1922s;67ss
                                                       Rhipidistia Cope, 1887
                                                      Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 462 [implicit position]; Count: 3c;66o;505f;5068g;31,870s;10,681ss;303v;1; ‡3o;15f;113g;392s;79ss;1v; †108o;744f;5968g;1921s;67ss
                                                         Tetrapodomorpha Ahlberg, 1991
                                                        Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 465; Count: 3c;65o;502f;5065g;31,864s;10,676ss;303v;1; ‡3o;15f;113g;392s;79ss;1v; †107o;732f;5957g;1919s;67ss
                                                           Osteolepidimorpha
                                                          Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 466; Count: 3c;65o;502f;5065g;31,864s;10,676ss;303v;1; ‡3o;15f;113g;392s;79ss;1v; †106o;731f;5951g;1915s;67ss
                                                             Tetrapoda Goodrich, 1930
                                                            Ref: D.R. Frost et al., 2006: fig. 51 [out of scope] [indirect position]; Count: [oc] 3c;65o;502f;5065g;31,864s;10,676ss;303v;1; ‡3o;15f;113g;392s;79ss;1v; †104o;724f;5942g;1905s;67ss
                                                               Reptiliomorpha Säve-Söderbergh, 1934
                                                              Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 394 [inferred rank] [implicit position]; Count: [f] 2c;62o;441f;4540g;25,203s;10,606ss;303v;1; ‡3o;15f;113g;388s;79ss;1v; †100o;669f;5863g;1873s;67ss
                                                                 Batrachosauria
                                                                Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: box 4.5 [implicit position]; Count: [f] 2c;62o;441f;4540g;25,203s;10,606ss;303v;1; ‡3o;15f;113g;388s;79ss;1v; †99o;666f;5857g;1872s;67ss
                                                                   Amniota Haeckel, 1866 - amniotes
                                                                  Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 394 [inferred rank]; Count: [f] 2c;62o;441f;4540g;25,203s;10,606ss;303v;1; ‡3o;15f;113g;388s;79ss;1v; †97o;662f;5853g;1871s;67ss
                                                                     Class Reptilia Linnaeus, 1758 - reptiles
                                                                    Ref: M.J. Benton, 2015: 438 [implicit position]; Count: 35o;301f;3344g;20,060s;6269ss;1v;1; ‡2o;7f;60g;278s;48ss; †52o;288f;1278g;687s;2ss
                                                                       Eureptilia Olson, 1947
                                                                      Ref: M.J. Benton, 2015: 438 [inferred rank]; Count: 35o;301f;3344g;20,060s;6269ss;1v;1; ‡2o;7f;60g;278s;48ss; †47o;279f;1263g;683s;2ss
                                                                         Romeriida Gauthier, Kluge & Rowe, 1988
                                                                        Ref: R.V. Hill, 2005: fig. 5; Count: [s] 35o;301f;3344g;20,060s;6269ss;1v;1; ‡2o;7f;60g;278s;48ss; †47o;278f;1261g;682s;2ss
                                                                           Diapsida Osborn, 1903
                                                                          Ref: R.V. Hill, 2005: fig. 5; Count: [s] 35o;301f;3344g;20,060s;6269ss;1v;1; ‡2o;7f;60g;278s;48ss; †47o;277f;1259g;682s;2ss
                                                                             Neodiapsida Benton 1985 [Laurin 1991] {Reisz, Modesto & Scott 2011}
                                                                            Ref: R.R. Reisz et al., 2011: 3733 [emended diagnosis]; Count: 35o;301f;3344g;20,060s;6269ss;1v;1; ‡2o;7f;60g;278s;48ss; †45o;274f;1256g;681s;2ss
                                                                               [crown] Sauria Macartney 1802 [Gauthier 1984]
                                                                              Ref: R.R. Reisz et al., 2011: fig. 4; Count: 35o;301f;3344g;20,060s;6269ss;1v;1; ‡2o;7f;60g;278s;48ss; †44o;271f;1248g;677s;2ss
                                                                                 Archosauromorpha Huene, 1946
                                                                                Ref: R.R. Reisz et al., 2011: fig. 4; Count: [s] 32o;205f;2160g;9642s;5711ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;58g;262s;45ss; †39o;216f;1107g;599s;2ss
                                                                                   Archosauria Cope, 1869
                                                                                  Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: figs. 1.2, 1.8A [Benton, 2015: box 6.1]; Count: 32o;205f;2160g;9642s;5711ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;58g;262s;45ss; †35o;207f;1093g;590s;2ss
                                                                                     Avesuchia Benton, 1999
                                                                                    Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.8A [out of scope]; Count: [s] 32o;205f;2160g;9642s;5711ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;58g;262s;45ss; †34o;203f;1087g;590s;2ss
                                                                                       Avemetatarsalia Benton, 1999
                                                                                      Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.8A [out of scope]; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †30o;174f;935g;472s;2ss
                                                                                         Ornithodira Gauthier, 1986
                                                                                        Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.8A [Benton, 2015: 440] [out of scope]; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †30o;173f;934g;471s;2ss
                                                                                           Dinosauromorpha Benton, 1985
                                                                                          Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.8A [out of scope]; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †29o;150f;871g;450s;2ss
                                                                                             Dinosauriformes Novas, 1992
                                                                                            Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 139; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †29o;149f;870g;449s;2ss
                                                                                               Dinosauria Owen, 1842b
                                                                                              Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.8A; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †29o;149f;869g;449s;2ss
                                                                                                 Saurischia Seeley, 1887a
                                                                                                Ref: M.C. Langer, 2004: table 2.1; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †28o;129f;676g;372s;2ss
                                                                                                   Eusaurischia Padian et al., 1999
                                                                                                  Ref: M.C. Langer, 2004: table 2.1; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †28o;128f;671g;367s;2ss
                                                                                                     Theropoda Marsh, 1881a
                                                                                                    Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. & H. Osmólska, 2004: [21]; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †28o;112f;552g;313s;2ss
                                                                                                       Tetanurae Gauthier, 1986
                                                                                                      Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. et al., 2004: table 4.1 (p. [72]); Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †28o;109f;522g;303s;2ss
                                                                                                         Avetheropoda Paul, 1988
                                                                                                        Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. et al., 2004: table 4.1 (p. [74]); Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †28o;109f;509g;285s;2ss
                                                                                                           Coelurosauria von Huene, 1914a
                                                                                                          Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. et al., 2004: table 4.1 (p. [76]); Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †28o;105f;482g;271s;2ss
                                                                                                             Tyrannoraptora
                                                                                                            Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. & H. Osmólska, 2004: fig. S.2; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †28o;105f;475g;263s;2ss
                                                                                                               Maniraptoriformes T. Holtz, 1996a
                                                                                                              Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. & H. Osmólska, 2004: fig. S.2; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †28o;102f;448g;240s;2ss
                                                                                                                 Maniraptora Gauthier, 1986
                                                                                                                Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. & H. Osmólska, 2004: fig. S.2; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †28o;99f;437g;228s;2ss
                                                                                                                   Paraves Sereno, 1997
                                                                                                                  Ref: Zanno, 2010: fig. 6; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †27o;91f;385g;183s;2ss
                                                                                                                     Avialae Gauthier, 1986
                                                                                                                    Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. & H. Osmólska, 2004: fig. S.2 [implicit position]; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †27o;89f;361g;175s;2ss
                                                                                                                       [Class Aves Linnaeus, 1758 - birds] see Subclass Aves Linnaeus, 1758
                                                                                                                      Ref: J.K. O'Connor et al., 2010: 312 [indirect position]; Count: †4o;4f
                                                                                                                         [Order †Caenagnathiformes]
                                                                                                                        Ref: 2003; Count: -
                                                                                                                         [Order †"Ichthornithiformes"] see Order Ichthyornithiformes Marsh, 1873
                                                                                                                        Ref: J.J. Sepkoski Jr., 2002: 320; Count: -
                                                                                                                         [Genus Leptopus Fraser, 1845]
                                                                                                                        Ref: S.A. Neave, [2005]: 18 May 2008 [nominal taxon] [implicit position]; Count: -
                                                                                                                         Order †Limnornithiformes
                                                                                                                        Ref: 2003; Count: †2f
                                                                                                                         Order †Praeornithiformes
                                                                                                                        Ref: 2003; Count: †1f
                                                                                                                         Family †Ptenopodiscidae
                                                                                                                        Ref: 2003; Count: -
                                                                                                                         [Genus †Scanirnis]
                                                                                                                        Ref: J.J. Sepkoski Jr., 2002 [rough position]; Count: -
                                                                                                                         Order †Sinosauropterygiformes
                                                                                                                        Ref: 2003; Count: -
                                                                                                                         Order †Yandangithformes
                                                                                                                        Ref: 2003; Count: -
                                                                                                                         0.1.0 [Genus †Rahona Forster et al., 1998, nom. praeocc.] see Genus Rahonavis Forster et al., 1998, nom. nov.
                                                                                                                        Ref: 1999 [indirect position]; Count: -
                                                                                                                         1.0 [Subclass †Archaeornithes Gadow, 1893] see Superorder Archaeornithes Gadow, 1893
                                                                                                                        Ref: W.J. Bock, 1982: 967; Count: †6o;2f
                                                                                                                         1.0 [Subclass †"Archeornithes"] see Subclass Archaeornithes Gadow, 1893
                                                                                                                        Ref: 1990; Count: -
                                                                                                                         1.0 [Subclass †Sauriurae Haeckel, 1866] see Subclass Archaeornithes Gadow, 1893
                                                                                                                        Ref: E.N. Kurochkin, 1996: 22; Count: -
                                                                                                                         2.2.2.0 [Subclass Pygostylia] see [unranked] Pygostylia
                                                                                                                        Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 398; Count: -
                                                                                                                         2.2.2.2.2.2 [Order Accipitres Linnaeus, 1758] see Suborder Accipitres (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
                                                                                                                        Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1766: 121; Count: -
                                                                                                                         2.2.2.2.2.2 [Order Anseres Linnaeus, 1758] see Suborder Anseres (C. Linnaeus, 1758) Wagler, 1831
                                                                                                                        Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1766: 194; Count: -
                                                                                                                         2.2.2.2.2.2 [Order Gallinae Linnaeus, 1758]
                                                                                                                        Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1766: 267; Count: -
                                                                                                                         2.2.2.2.2.2 [Order Grallae Linnaeus, 1758]
                                                                                                                        Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1766: 230; Count: -
                                                                                                                         2.2.2.2.2.2 [Subclass Ornithurae Haeckel, 1866] see [unranked] Ornithurae Haeckel, 1866
                                                                                                                        Ref: Z. Zhou & F. Zhang, 2006: 79; Count: -
                                                                                                                         2.2.2.2.2.2 [Order Passeres Linnaeus, 1758] see Suborder Passeres (C. Linnaeus, 1758) C. Linnaeus, 1766
                                                                                                                        Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1766: 279; Count: -
                                                                                                                         2.2.2.2.2.2 [Order Picae Linnaeus, 1758] see Parvclass Picae (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
                                                                                                                        Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1766: 139; Count: -
                                                                                                                         2.2.2.2.2.2.0 [Subclass †Odontoholcae (Marsh, 1875) Stejneger, 1885] see Cohort Ornithurae (Haeckel, 1866)
                                                                                                                        Ref: P. Brodkorb, 1963: 191; Count: -

©2004-2017 Universal Taxonomic Services
Last updated: 25 Apr 2017