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Under construction
Taxon: Class Aves Linnaeus, 1758 - birds (bird)
Classification by:

Natura - nature
Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1748: 210; Count: 12k;97p;819c;1458o;9506f;105,261g;216,548s;24,518ss;2108v;35,623;110e; ‡3o;15f;116g;516s;91ss;1v;7; †6p;79c;484o;2665f;13,438g;4392s;122ss;1v;393
   actualia - actual entities
  Ref: A. Voltolini, 2006: 44 (note 19) [assumed position]; Count: 12k;97p;819c;1458o;9506f;105,261g;216,547s;24,518ss;2108v;35,623;110e; ‡3o;15f;116g;516s;91ss;1v;7; †6p;79c;484o;2665f;13,438g;4392s;122ss;1v;393
     Mundus Plinius - physical world
    Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1758: 5 [indirect position]; Count: 12k;97p;819c;1458o;9506f;105,261g;216,547s;24,518ss;2108v;35,621;110e; ‡3o;15f;116g;516s;91ss;1v;7; †6p;79c;484o;2665f;13,438g;4392s;122ss;1v;393
       naturalia - natural bodies
      Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1758: 6 [implicit position]; Count: 6k;97p;819c;1458o;9430f;105,251g;216,123s;24,518ss;2077v;7; ‡3o;15f;116g;516s;91ss;1v; †6p;79c;484o;2665f;13,438g;4392s;122ss;1v
         Biota
        Ref: Count: [p] 4k;97p;344c;1450o;9430f;105,208g;213,864s;24,516ss;2049v;7; ‡3o;15f;116g;516s;91ss;1v; †6p;79c;483o;2665f;13,429g;4352s;122ss;1v
           "neomura"
          Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2002b: 297; Count: 4k;68p;284c;1312o;9001f;102,380g;200,240s;24,111ss;2031v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;516s;91ss;1v; †6p;79c;483o;2664f;13,422g;4343s;122ss;1v
             Domain Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 - eukaryotes
            Ref: P.M. Kirk et al., 2008: 248 [indirect position]; Count: 4k;63p;274c;1292o;8968f;102,256g;199,796s;24,111ss;2031v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;516s;91ss;1v; †6p;79c;483o;2664f;13,422g;4343s;122ss;1v
               "neokaryotes" - mitochondrial eukaryotes
              Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: 116 [inferred position]; Count: 4k;62p;270c;1284o;8962f;102,038g;199,623s;24,104ss;2031v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;516s;91ss;1v; †6p;79c;483o;2661f;13,328g;4257s;116ss;1v
                 "neozoa"
                Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: fig. 2; Count: 4k;61p;264c;1276o;8951f;102,001g;199,568s;24,104ss;2031v;1; ‡3o;15f;116g;516s;91ss;1v; †6p;79c;483o;2661f;13,328g;4257s;116ss;1v
                   "scotokaryotes" Cavalier-Smith, 1999
                  Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith et al., 2015: 357 [emended diagnosis] [indirect position]; Count: 2k;45p;153c;756o;6982f;80,806g;178,646s;23,580ss;511v; ‡3o;15f;115g;512s;91ss;1v; †6p;74c;436o;2322f;10,608g;3944s;96ss;1v
                     "podiates" Cavalier-Smith, 2013
                    Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith et al., 2015: 357 [new position]; Count: [p] 2k;43p;147c;742o;6946f;80,691g;178,487s;23,580ss;511v; ‡3o;15f;115g;512s;91ss;1v; †6p;74c;436o;2322f;10,608g;3944s;96ss;1v
                       Amorphea Adl et al., 2012
                      Ref: S.M. Adl et al., 2012: table 1 (p. 430) [new taxon] [indirect position]; Count: [p] 2k;43p;144c;739o;6941f;80,682g;178,474s;23,580ss;511v; ‡3o;15f;115g;512s;91ss;1v; †6p;74c;436o;2322f;10,608g;3944s;96ss;1v
                         Opisthokonta Cavalier-Smith, 1987
                        Ref: E.J. van Nieukerken, 2010: 98 [indirect position]; Count: [p] 2k;41p;134c;707o;6866f;80,435g;178,004s;23,578ss;507v; ‡3o;15f;115g;512s;91ss;1v; †6p;74c;436o;2322f;10,608g;3943s;96ss;1v
                           Holozoa
                          Ref: E.J. van Nieukerken, 2010: 101; Count: [p] 1k;34p;92c;547o;6272f;72,764g;176,070s;23,570ss;484v; ‡3o;15f;115g;512s;91ss;1v; †6p;74c;436o;2322f;10,595g;3942s;96ss;1v
                             filozoa Shalchian-Tabrizi, Minge, Espelund, Orr, Ruden, Jakobsen & Cavalier-Smith, 2008
                            Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: 156 [inferred position]; Count: 1k;34p;91c;545o;6265f;72,744g;176,048s;23,570ss;484v; ‡3o;15f;115g;512s;91ss;1v; †6p;74c;436o;2322f;10,595g;3942s;96ss;1v
                               Kingdom Animalia Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
                              Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013: 156 [implicit position]; Count: 34p;88c;541o;6259f;72,688g;175,980s;23,570ss;483v; ‡3o;15f;115g;512s;91ss;1v; †6p;74c;436o;2322f;10,595g;3942s;96ss;1v
                                 Epitheliozoa Ax, 1996
                                Ref: C. Nielsen, 2001: fig. 2.5; Count: [p] 33p;84c;514o;6119f;71,959g;175,618s;23,555ss;480v; ‡3o;15f;115g;512s;91ss;1v; †5p;69c;409o;2104f;9403g;3711s;96ss;1v
                                   Eumetazoa Bütschli, 1910 - eumetazoans
                                  Ref: C. Nielsen, 2001: fig. 2.5; Count: [p] 32p;84c;514o;6118f;71,957g;175,616s;23,555ss;480v; ‡3o;15f;115g;512s;91ss;1v; †5p;69c;409o;2104f;9403g;3711s;96ss;1v
                                     Bilateria Hatschek, 1888 - bilaterians
                                    Ref: E.J. van Nieukerken, 2010: 111; Count: [p] 29p;74c;479o;5838f;70,963g;174,568s;23,546ss;464v; ‡3o;15f;115g;512s;91ss;1v; †4p;62c;395o;2084f;9263g;3599s;96ss;1v
                                       Eubilateria Ax, 1987
                                      Ref: J. Baguñà & M. Riutort, 2004: 1052 [new taxon]; Count: [p] 27p;74c;475o;5812f;70,869g;174,469s;23,546ss;464v; ‡3o;15f;115g;512s;91ss;1v; †3p;59c;395o;2080f;9253g;3592s;96ss;1v
                                         Superphylum Deuterostomia Grobben, 1908 - deuterostomes
                                        Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 15 [indirect position]; Count: [p] 4p;21c;190o;1185f;10,292g;59,581s;11,397ss;309v; ‡3o;15f;115g;408s;83ss;1v; †1p;31c;224o;1027f;7191g;2141s;74ss
                                           [crown] Phylum Chordata Bateson, 1885 - chordates
                                          Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 15; Count: 12c;149o;1023f;9744g;59,188s;11,389ss;307v; ‡3o;15f;115g;408s;83ss;1v; †10c;195o;1006f;7049g;2088s;69ss
                                             Subphylum Vertebrata Cuvier, 1812 - vertebrates
                                            Ref: E.J. van Nieukerken, 2010: 280; Count: [fc] 9c;142o;998f;9659g;59,034s;11,385ss;307v; ‡3o;15f;115g;408s;83ss;1v; †10c;195o;1006f;7043g;2087s;69ss
                                               [crown] Myopterygii - myopterygians
                                              Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 30 [implicit position]; Count: 8c;140o;994f;9644g;58,915s;11,385ss;307v; ‡3o;15f;115g;408s;83ss;1v; †7c;180o;995f;6722g;2075s;67ss
                                                 [crown] Superclass Gnathostomata Zittel, 1879 - jawed vertebrates
                                                Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 16; Count: 8c;140o;994f;9644g;58,915s;11,385ss;307v; ‡3o;15f;115g;408s;83ss;1v; †4c;171o;970f;6643g;2067s;67ss
                                                   Grade Teleostomi Bonaparte, 1836
                                                  Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 82; Count: 7c;126o;940f;9449g;57,757s;11,383ss;307v; ‡3o;15f;115g;408s;83ss;1v; †3c;136o;882f;6359g;2004s;67ss
                                                     Euteleostomi - bony vertebrates
                                                    Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 86; Count: 7c;126o;940f;9449g;57,757s;11,383ss;307v; ‡3o;15f;115g;408s;83ss;1v; †2c;133o;872f;6301g;1994s;67ss
                                                       Sarcopterygii Romer, 1955
                                                      Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 17 [inferred rank]; Count: 6c;67o;476f;4924g;29,753s;10,844ss;304v; ‡3o;15f;112g;387s;79ss;1v; †2c;101o;729f;5853g;1845s;67ss
                                                         [crown] Rhipidistia Cope, 1887
                                                        Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 462 [implicit position]; Count: 6c;66o;476f;4924g;29,753s;10,844ss;304v; ‡3o;15f;112g;387s;79ss;1v; †2c;100o;728f;5845g;1844s;67ss
                                                           Tetrapodomorpha Ahlberg, 1991
                                                          Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 465; Count: 6c;65o;473f;4921g;29,747s;10,839ss;304v; ‡3o;15f;112g;387s;79ss;1v; †2c;99o;716f;5834g;1842s;67ss
                                                             [crown] Osteolepidimorpha
                                                            Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 466; Count: 6c;65o;473f;4921g;29,747s;10,839ss;304v; ‡3o;15f;112g;387s;79ss;1v; †2c;98o;715f;5828g;1838s;67ss
                                                               Superclass Tetrapoda Goodrich, 1930 - tetrapods
                                                              Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 393 [indirect position]; Count: [fc] 6c;65o;473f;4921g;29,747s;10,839ss;304v; ‡3o;15f;112g;387s;79ss;1v; †2c;96o;708f;5819g;1828s;67ss
                                                                 Reptiliomorpha Säve-Söderbergh, 1934
                                                                Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 394 [inferred rank]; Count: [f] 5c;62o;412f;4395g;23,084s;10,769ss;304v; ‡3o;15f;112g;384s;79ss;1v; †2c;92o;653f;5740g;1796s;67ss
                                                                   Batrachosauria
                                                                  Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: box 4.5 [implicit position]; Count: [f] 5c;62o;412f;4395g;23,084s;10,769ss;304v; ‡3o;15f;112g;384s;79ss;1v; †2c;91o;650f;5734g;1795s;67ss
                                                                     Amniota Haeckel, 1866 - amniotes
                                                                    Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 394 [inferred rank]; Count: [f] 5c;62o;412f;4395g;23,084s;10,769ss;304v; ‡3o;15f;112g;384s;79ss;1v; †2c;89o;646f;5730g;1794s;67ss
                                                                       Reptilia
                                                                      Ref: R.V. Hill, 2005: fig. 5; Count: [s] 4c;35o;272f;3199g;17,941s;6432ss;2v; ‡2o;7f;59g;274s;48ss; †2c;44o;271f;1165g;618s;2ss
                                                                         Eureptilia Olson, 1947
                                                                        Ref: R.V. Hill, 2005: fig. 5; Count: [s] 4c;35o;272f;3199g;17,941s;6432ss;2v; ‡2o;7f;59g;274s;48ss; †2c;44o;267f;1160g;616s;2ss
                                                                           Romeriida
                                                                          Ref: R.V. Hill, 2005: fig. 5; Count: [s] 4c;35o;272f;3199g;17,941s;6432ss;2v; ‡2o;7f;59g;274s;48ss; †2c;44o;266f;1158g;615s;2ss
                                                                             Diapsida Osborn, 1903
                                                                            Ref: R.V. Hill, 2005: fig. 5; Count: [s] 4c;35o;272f;3199g;17,941s;6432ss;2v; ‡2o;7f;59g;274s;48ss; †2c;44o;265f;1156g;615s;2ss
                                                                               Eosuchia Broom, 1914
                                                                              Ref: R.V. Hill, 2005: fig. 5; Count: [s] 4c;35o;272f;3199g;17,941s;6432ss;2v; ‡2o;7f;59g;274s;48ss; †2c;43o;263f;1154g;614s;2ss
                                                                                 Neodiapsida Gauthier, 1984
                                                                                Ref: R.V. Hill, 2005: fig. 5; Count: [s] 4c;35o;272f;3199g;17,941s;6432ss;2v; ‡2o;7f;59g;274s;48ss; †2c;43o;261f;1152g;613s;2ss
                                                                                   Sauria Macartney, 1802
                                                                                  Ref: R.V. Hill, 2005: fig. 5; Count: [s] 4c;35o;272f;3199g;17,941s;6432ss;2v; ‡2o;7f;59g;274s;48ss; †1c;40o;253f;1134g;594s;2ss
                                                                                     Archosauromorpha von Huene, 1946
                                                                                    Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.2 [out of scope] [indirect position]; Count: [s] 2c;32o;205f;2159g;9640s;5714ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †37o;213f;1044g;544s;2ss
                                                                                       Archosauria Cope, 1869
                                                                                      Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.2 [out of scope]; Count: [s] 2c;32o;205f;2159g;9640s;5714ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †33o;206f;1032g;535s;2ss
                                                                                         Avesuchia
                                                                                        Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.8A [out of scope]; Count: [s] 2c;32o;205f;2159g;9640s;5714ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †33o;202f;1026g;535s;2ss
                                                                                           Avemetatarsalia Benton, 1999
                                                                                          Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.8A [out of scope]; Count: [s] 1c;31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †33o;177f;931g;467s;2ss
                                                                                             Ornithodira
                                                                                            Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.8A [out of scope]; Count: [s] 1c;31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †33o;176f;930g;466s;2ss
                                                                                               Dinosauromorpha
                                                                                              Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.8A [out of scope]; Count: [s] 1c;31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †32o;153f;867g;445s;2ss
                                                                                                 Dinosauriformes
                                                                                                Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 139; Count: [s] 1c;31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †32o;152f;866g;444s;2ss
                                                                                                   Dinosauria Owen, 1842b
                                                                                                  Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.8A; Count: [s] 1c;31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †32o;152f;865g;444s;2ss
                                                                                                     Saurischia Seeley, 1887a
                                                                                                    Ref: M.C. Langer, 2004: table 2.1; Count: [s] 1c;31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †31o;132f;671g;368s;2ss
                                                                                                       Eusaurischia Padian et al., 1999
                                                                                                      Ref: M.C. Langer, 2004: table 2.1; Count: [s] 1c;31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †31o;131f;666g;363s;2ss
                                                                                                         Theropoda Marsh, 1881a
                                                                                                        Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. & H. Osmólska, 2004: [21]; Count: [s] 1c;31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †31o;115f;547g;309s;2ss
                                                                                                           Tetanurae Gauthier, 1986
                                                                                                          Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. et al., 2004: table 4.1 (p. [72]); Count: [s] 1c;31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †31o;112f;517g;299s;2ss
                                                                                                             Avetheropoda Paul, 1988
                                                                                                            Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. et al., 2004: table 4.1 (p. [74]); Count: [s] 1c;31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †31o;112f;504g;281s;2ss
                                                                                                               Coelurosauria von Huene, 1914a
                                                                                                              Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. et al., 2004: table 4.1 (p. [76]); Count: [s] 1c;31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †31o;108f;477g;267s;2ss
                                                                                                                 Tyrannoraptora
                                                                                                                Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. & H. Osmólska, 2004: fig. S.2; Count: [s] 1c;31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †31o;108f;470g;259s;2ss
                                                                                                                   Maniraptoriformes T. Holtz, 1996a
                                                                                                                  Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. & H. Osmólska, 2004: fig. S.2; Count: [s] 1c;31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †31o;105f;443g;236s;2ss
                                                                                                                     Maniraptora Gauthier, 1986
                                                                                                                    Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. & H. Osmólska, 2004: fig. S.2; Count: [s] 1c;31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †31o;102f;432g;224s;2ss
                                                                                                                       Paraves Sereno, 1997
                                                                                                                      Ref: Zanno, 2010: fig. 6; Count: [s] 1c;31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †30o;94f;380g;179s;2ss
                                                                                                                         Avialae Gauthier, 1986
                                                                                                                        Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. & H. Osmólska, 2004: fig. S.2 [implicit position]; Count: [s] 1c;31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †30o;92f;356g;171s;2ss
                                                                                                                           Class Aves Linnaeus, 1758 - birds
                                                                                                                          Ref: J.K. O'Connor et al., 2010: 312 [indirect position]; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †30o;91f;354g;169s;2ss
                                                                                                                             Order †Limnornithiformes
                                                                                                                            Ref: 2003; Count: †2f
                                                                                                                             Order †Praeornithiformes
                                                                                                                            Ref: 2003; Count: †1f
                                                                                                                             Family †Ptenopodiscidae
                                                                                                                            Ref: 2003; Count: -
                                                                                                                             Order †Sinosauropterygiformes
                                                                                                                            Ref: 2003; Count: -
                                                                                                                             Order †Yandangithformes
                                                                                                                            Ref: 2003; Count: -
                                                                                                                             1 Order †Archaeopterygiformes (Fürbringer, 1888) [monotypic]
                                                                                                                            Ref: B.C. Livezey & R.L. Zusi, 2007: 89 [implicit position]; Count: [†*] †1f;4g;5s
                                                                                                                             2.1 Order †Jeholornithiformes Zhou & Zhang, 2006 [monotypic]
                                                                                                                            Ref: Z. Zhou & F. Zhang, 2006: 78 [new taxon]; Count: [†*] †1f;1g;1s
                                                                                                                             2.2.1 Genus †Zhongornis Gao et al., 2008 [monotypic]
                                                                                                                            Ref: J.K. O'Connor et al., 2010: fig. 9; Count: [†*] †1s
                                                                                                                             2.2.2 Pygostylia
                                                                                                                            Ref: J.K. O'Connor et al., 2010: fig. 9; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;5695ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;45ss; †24o;85f;348g;162s;2ss

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Last updated: 30 Apr 2016