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Taxon: Phylum Bryozoa Ehrenberg, 1831 - bryozoans (invertebrate)
 Entity: 

Concise hierarchy

(Kingdom) Animalia

Current position

Lophophorata ([unranked]) Hyman, 1959 Ref: F. Marlétaz et al., 2019: 5 (fig. 3). [inferred rank]

Alternative positions

Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: Z.-Q. Zhang, 2013: 8.
Bilateria ([unranked]) Hatschek, 1888 Ref: G. Giribet et al., 2000: 551.
Eucoelomata (Section) Ref: T.I. Storer et al., 1979: 322.
Eumetazoa (Subkingdom) Butschli, 1910 Ref: J.S. Ryland, 1982: 743.
lophophorates ([unranked]) Ref: L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz, 1998: 302-305.
Lophotrochozoa (Infrakingdom) Halanych, Bacheller, Aguinaldo, Liva, Hillis & Lake, 1995 Ref: P.J. Hayward, 2001: 326. [indirect]
Lophotrochozoa (Superphylum) Halanych, Bacheller, Aguinaldo, Liva, Hillis & Lake, 1995 Ref: 06/12/2004
Metazoa (Subkingdom) Haeckel, 1874 Ref: R.C. van Caenegem et al., 1980: 307. [alternative name]
Metazoa (Kingdom) Haeckel, 1874
Polyzoa ([unranked]) Ref: M.J. Benton, 2015: fig. 1.6 (G. Edgecombe). [out of scope (coherent)]
Polyzoa (Superphylum) Thompson, 1830 Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998: 235. [new position]
Spiralia (Superphylum) Schleip, 1929 Ref: M.A. Ruggiero et al., 2015b: table 2 (p. 43).
Tentaculata (Midphylum) Eschscholtz, 1825 Ref: E. Möhn, 1984

Subsequent positions

Polyzoa (Superphylum) Thompson, 1830 Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998: 235 [assumed]

Original entries

Gymnolaemata (Subphylum) (Allman, 1856) Cavalier-Smith, 1998

Historical positions

Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: T. Rees et al., 2020: table 2 (p. 131).
Lophophorata ([unranked]) Hyman, 1959 Ref: F. Marlétaz et al., 2019: 5 (fig. 3). [inferred rank]
Spiralia (Superphylum) Schleip, 1929 Ref: M.A. Ruggiero et al., 2015b: table 2 (p. 43).
Polyzoa ([unranked]) Ref: M.J. Benton, 2015: fig. 1.6 (G. Edgecombe). [out of scope (coherent)]
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: Z.-Q. Zhang, 2013: 8.
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: Z.-Q. Zhang, 2011: 10.
fossil marine animal genera (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: J.J. Sepkoski Jr., 2002: 218 (TREATISE Part G, 1953).
organisms ([unranked]) Ref: P.J. Hayward, 2001: 326.
Bilateria ([unranked]) Hatschek, 1888 Ref: G. Giribet et al., 2000: 544, 551, fig. 4; tab. 1.
lophophorates ([unranked]) Ref: L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz, 1998: 302-305.
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: Anonymous, 1998
Polyzoa (Superphylum) Thompson, 1830 Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998: table 4 (p. 235). [new position]
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: Anonymous, 1995
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: P.D. Taylor, 1993: [465].
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: R.S. Boardman et al., 1987
Tentaculata (Midphylum) Eschscholtz, 1825 Ref: E. Möhn, 1984
Metazoa (Subkingdom) Haeckel, 1874 Ref: R.C. van Caenegem et al., 1980: 307. [alternative name]
Eumetazoa (Subkingdom) Butschli, 1910 Ref: J.S. Ryland, 1982: 743.
Eucoelomata (Section) Ref: T.I. Storer et al., 1979: 322.

Phylogeny

Questionably Paraphyletic/Ancestral (para) Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998: 235.

Descendants

Kamptozoa (Phylum) Cori, 1929 Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998: 242

Number of Subtaxa

2023 Available in Systema Naturae 2000 3c;4o;140f;332g;214s; †5o;13f;64g;66s
1989-present Systema Naturae 2000 3c;[4o;131f];587g;4000s; †1102g;3000s
2020 T. Rees et al.: table 2 (p. 131) 3,540*ng;2,197[-3,024]*g; †58.5%g
2013 Z.-Q. Zhang: 8 11,474*[6,008]s; †5,466s
2011 Z.-Q. Zhang: 10 10,941[5486]s; †5455s
2011 Z.-Q. Zhang: 10 10,941[5486]s; †5455s
1998 T. Cavalier-Smith [2sp]
1987 R.S. Boardman et al. 3c
1982 J.S. Ryland: 743 3c;[4o;131f];4000s
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Last updated: 4 Aug 2022