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Taxon: Gymnospermae Lindl. (plant)
Classification by:

Natura - nature
   actualia - actual entities
     Mundus Plinius - physical world
       naturalia - natural bodies
         Biota
           "neomura"
             Domain Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 - eukaryotes
               neokaryotes Cavalier-Smith 1993 - mitochondrial eukaryotes
                 neozoa Cavalier-Smith 1993
                   Superkingdom Corticata Lankester, 1878
                     Kingdom Plantae Haeckel (1866) - plants
                       Subkingdom Viridiplantae Caval.-Sm. (1981) - green plants
                         Infrakingdom Streptophyta C. Jeffrey (1967)
                           Superphylum Embryophyta
                             "polysporangiophytes"
                               Phylum Tracheophyta Sinnott ex Caval.-Sm. (1998) - vascular plants
                                 [Subphylum] Euphyllophytina
                                   Infraphylum "Radiatopses" Kenrick & Crane (1997)
                                     "lignophytes"
                                       Class Spermatopsida
                                         [Gymnospermae Lindl.] see Class Spermatopsida
                                           1 [Class †Pteridospermopsida] see [unranked] pteridosperms
                                           2 [Class Cycadopsida Brongn. (1843)] see Subclass Cycadidae Pax (1894)
                                           3.1 [Class Ginkgoopsida Engl. (1898)] see Subclass Ginkgoidae Engl. (1897)
                                           3.2.1 [Class Pinopsida Burnett (1835)] see Subclass Pinidae Cronquist, Takht. & Zimmerm. (1966)
                                           3.2.2 [Class Gnetopsida Eicher ex Kirpotenko (1884)] see Subclass Gnetidae Pax (1894)

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Last updated: 20 Dec 2019