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Period: Early Silurian
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 Topic: 

Period: 444 million to 428 million years ago.

Fishes (4)

Entire range:

Pterospathodus (Genus) Walliser, 1964

Within limits:

Conodonta (Superclass) Eichenberg, 1930 - conodonts

Distacodontina (Order)

Hibbardellina (Order)

Vertebrates (3)

Within limits:

Anaspida (Superclass)

Thelodonti (Superclass) - thelodonts

Vertebrata (Subphylum) Cuvier, 1812 - vertebrates

Echinoderms (22)

Upper limit:

Paracrinoidea (Class)

Within limits:

Asteroidea (Class) - sea stars

Blastoidea (Class)

Camerates (Subclass)

Crinoidea (Class) - sea lilies and feather stars

Cyclocystoidea (Class)

Diploporita (Class)

Echinocystitoida (Order)

Echinodermata (Phylum) Bruguière, 1789 - echinoderms

Echinoidea (Class) - sea urchins and sand dollars

Edrioasteroidea (Class)

Eocrinoidea (Class)

Flexibles (Subclass)

Holothuroidea (Class) - sea cucumbers

Homalozoa (Subphylum) Whitehouse, 1941

Homoiostelea (Class) Gill & Caster, 1960

Inadunates (Subclass)

Ophiocistioidea (Class)

Ophiuroidea (Class) - brittle stars and basket stars

Platyasterida (Order)

Rhombifera (Class)

Stylophora (Class) Gill & Caster, 1960 - stylophorans

Crustaceans (12)

Within limits:

Bairdia (Genus) McCoy, 1844

Branchiopoda (Class) Latreille, 1817 - branchiopods

Cephalocarida (Class) H.L. Sanders, 1955 - cephalocarids

Eurychilinidae (Family)

Lepadomorpha (Suborder) Pilsbry, 1916

Leperditicopida (Order) Scott, 1961

Malacostraca (Class) Latreille, 1802

Myodocopida (Order) Sars, 1866

Ostracoda (Class) Latreille, 1802 - ostracods

Phyllocarida (Subclass) Packard, 1879 - leptostracans

Platycopida (Order) Sars, 1866

Podocopida (Order) (Sars, 1866) G.W. Müller, 1894

Arachnids (4)

Lower limit:

Scorpiones (Order) C.L. Koch, 1837 - scorpions

Within limits:

Arachnida (Class) Cuvier, 1812

Scorpiones (Order) C.L. Koch, 1837 - scorpions

Trigonotarbida (Order) Petrunkevitch, 1949

Arthropods (20)

Entire range:

Arctinurus (Genus) Castelnau, 1843

Arctinurus boltoni (Bigsby, 1825)

Within limits:

Arthropoda (Phylum) von Siebold, 1848 - arthropods

Calymenina (Suborder)

Calymenoidea (Superfamily)

Chasmataspidida (Order) Caster & Brooks, 1956

Chelicerata (Superclass)

Dalmanitidae (Family)

Dalmanitoidea (Superfamily)

Lichidae (Family)

Naraoia (Genus) Walcott, 1912

Naraoiidae (Family) Walcott, 1912

Nektaspida (Order) Raymond, 1920 - nektaspids

Phacopida (Order) Salter, 1864

Phacopina (Suborder)

Progoneata ([unranked])

Styginidae (Family)

synziphosurines ([unranked])

Xiphosura (Class) Latreille, 1802 - horseshoe crabs

Xiphosurida (Order) Latreille, 1802

Molluscs (20)

Upper limit:

Ribeirioida (Order) Kobayashi, 1933

Entire range:

Actinodonta (Genus) Phillips, 1848

Within limits:

Actinoceratoidea (Subclass)

Bivalvia (Class) Linnaeus, 1758 - bivalves

Bransonia (Genus) Pojeta & Runnegar, 1976

Cephalopoda (Class) Cuvier, 1795 - cephalopods

Conocardioida (Order) Neumayr, 1891

Cyrtonellida (Order) Horny, 1963

Gastropoda (Class) Cuvier, 1795 - snails and slugs

Hippocardia (Genus) Brown, 1843

Hyolithida (Order) Matthew, 1899

Mollusca (Phylum) Linnaeus, 1758 - molluscs

Murchisonia (Genus)

Nautiloidea (Subclass) Agassiz, 1847

Nautilus (Genus) Linnaeus, 1758

Onychochilina (Suborder)

Patellina (Suborder) von Ihering, 1876

Platyceras (Genus) Conrad, 1840

Rostroconchia (Class) Pojeta et al., 1972

Scaphopoda (Class) Bronn, 1862 - tusk shells

Annelids (2)

Within limits:

Annelida (Phylum) Lamarck, 1809 - segmented worms

Polychaeta (Class) Grube, 1850 - polychaetes

Sponges (28)

Within limits:

Amphidiscophora (Subclass) Schulze, 1886

Amphidiscosida (Order) Schrammen, 1924

Anthaspidellidae (Family) Miller, 1889

Astraeospongiidae (Family) Miller, 1889

Astylospongiidae (Family) Zittel, 1877

Calcarea (Class) Bowerbank, 1864 - calcareous sponges

Chiastoclonellidae (Family) Rauff, 1895

Clionaidae (Family) d'Orbigny, 1851

Cnemidiastridae (Family) Schrammen, 1924

Demospongiae (Class) Sollas, 1885 - demosponges

Dictyospongiidae (Family) Hall & Clarke, 1898

Dictyospongioidea (Superfamily) Hall & Clarke, 1899

Dierespongioidea (Superfamily) Rigby & Gutschick 1976

Hadromerida (Order) Topsent, 1894

Haplistiidae (Family) de Laubenfels, 1955

Hexactinellida (Class) Schmidt, 1870 - hexactinellids

Hexasterophora (Subclass) Schulze, 1886

Lyssacinosida (Order) Zittel, 1877

Porifera (Phylum) Grant, 1836 - sponges

Protospongiidae (Family) Hinde, 1887

Protospongioidea (Superfamily) Hinde, 1887

Reticulosa (Order) Reid, 1958

Rhizomorina (Suborder) Zittel, 1895

Sphaerocladina (Suborder) Schrammen, 1910

Stromatopora (Genus) Goldfuss, 1826

Stromatoporoidea (Class) Nicholson & Murie, 1878

Tetracladina (Suborder) Zittel, 1878

Verongida (Order) Bergquist, 1978

Invertebrates (158)

Upper limit:

Climacograptus (Genus)

Glyptograptus (Genus) Lapworth, 1873

Glyptorthis (Genus) Foerste, 1912

Platystrophia (Genus) King, 1850

Porambonitoidea (Superfamily)

Punctatrypoidea (Superfamily)

Rostricellula (Genus) Ulrich & Cooper, 1942

Entire range:

Climacograptus scalaris

Coronograptus (Genus)

Coronograptus cyphus

Dalejina (Genus) Havlicek, 1953

Dalejina junonis Li & Copper, 2006

Diceromyonia (Genus) Wang, 1946

Diceromyonia ciona Li & Copper, 2006

Dimorphograptus (Genus) Lapworth, 1876

Dimorphograptus confertus

Dimorphograptus confertus swanstoni

Flabellitesia (Genus) Ning Zhang, 1989

Flabellitesia adaia Li & Copper, 2006

Glyptograptus persculptus

Glyptorthis marilara Li & Copper, 2006

Heterorthina (Genus) Bancroft, 1928

Heterorthina cybele Li & Copper, 2006

Isorthis (Genus) Kozlowski, 1929

Isorthis natiscotekia Li & Copper, 2006

Jupiterella (Genus) Li & Copper, 2006

Jupiterella eumorpha Li & Copper, 2006

Levenea (Genus) Schuchert & Cooper, 1931

Levenea mera Li & Copper, 2006

Levenea rica Li & Copper, 2006

Mendacella (Genus) Cooper, 1930

Mendacella udauberis Li & Copper, 2006

Ovalella (Subgenus)

Parakidograptus (Genus) Li & Ge, 1981

Parakidograptus acuminatus

Pionodema (Genus) Foerste, 1912

Pionodema hypermeca Li & Copper, 2006

Plasmopora (Genus) Milne-Edwards & Haime, 1849

Platystrophia hongueda Li & Copper, 2006

Platystrophia regularis

Platystrophia regularis aporegularis Li & Copper, 2006

Platytrochalos (Genus) Jin, 1989

Platytrochalos rabbei Thomsen et al., 2006

Platytrochalos ringerikensis Thomsen et al., 2006

Rostricellula wadti Thomsen et al., 2006

Lower limit:

Athyridoidea (Superfamily)

Camarotoechioidea (Superfamily)

Delthyridina (Suborder)

Delthyridoidea (Superfamily)

Gypiduloidea (Superfamily)

Reticularioidea (Superfamily) Waagen, 1883

Retzielloidea (Superfamily)

Retziidina (Suborder)

Retzioidea (Superfamily)

Rhynchospirinoidea (Superfamily)

Stricklandioidea (Superfamily)

Uncinuloidea (Superfamily)

Within limits:

Acrotretida (Order) Kuhn, 1949

Acrotretoidea (Superfamily)

Adolfioidea (Superfamily)

Anazygidina (Suborder)

Anazygoidea (Superfamily)

Ancistrorhynchoidea (Superfamily)

Anthozoa (Class) Ehrenberg, 1831

Athyridida (Order)

Athyrididina (Suborder)

Atrypida (Order)

Atrypidina (Suborder)

Atrypoidea (Superfamily)

Brachiopoda (Phylum) Duméril, 1806 - brachiopods

Bryozoa (Phylum) Ehrenberg, 1831 - bryozoans

Camerelloidea (Superfamily)

Chileata (Class)

Chilidiopsoidea (Superfamily)

Chonetidina (Suborder)

Chonetoidea (Superfamily) Bronn, 1862

Cnidaria (Phylum) Hatschek, 1888 - cnidarians

Conulariida (Order) Miller & Gurley, 1896

Conulata (Class) Moore & Harrington, 1956

Craniata (Class) Williams, Carlson, Brunton, Holmer & Popov, 1996

Craniida (Order) Waagen, 1885

Craniidae (Family) Menke, 1828

Craniiformea (Subphylum) Popov, Bassett, Holmer & Laurie, 1993

Cranioidea (Superfamily) Menke, 1828

Craniopsida (Order) Gorjansky & Popov, 1985

Craniopsidae (Family) Williams, 1963

Craniopsoidea (Superfamily) Williams, 1963

Crustoidea (Order)

Ctenophora (Phylum) Eschscholtz, 1829 - comb jellies

Ctenostomata (Order) Busk, 1852

Cyrtioidea (Superfamily) Fredericks, 1919

Cystoporata (Order)

Dalmanellidina (Suborder)

Dalmanelloidea (Superfamily)

Dendroidea (Order)

Dictyonellida (Order)

Discinidae (Family)

Discinoidea (Superfamily)

Eichwaldioidea (Superfamily)

Enteletoidea (Superfamily)

Eurypterida (Order) Burmeister, 1843 - eurypterids

Fenestella (Genus) Lonsdale, 1839

Graptolithina (Class)

Graptoloidea (Order)

Gymnolaemata (Class)

Heliolitida (Order)

Hemichordata (Phylum) Bateson, 1885 - hemichordates

Hydrozoa (Class) Owen, 1843

Hyolithes (Genus) Eichwald, 1840

Lingulata (Class)

Lingulida (Order) Waagen, 1885

Linguliformea (Subphylum)

Linguloidea (Superfamily) Menke, 1828

Lissatrypidina (Suborder)

Lissatrypoidea (Superfamily)

Lobopodia (Phylum) Snodgrass, 1938 - lobopodians

Meristelloidea (Superfamily)

Monoplacophora (Class) Odhner, 1940 - monoplacophorans

Nucleospiroidea (Superfamily)

Obolidae (Family)

Orthida (Order) Schuchert & Cooper, 1932

Orthidina (Suborder)

Orthoidea (Superfamily)

Orthotetida (Order)

Orthotetidina (Suborder)

Orthotheca (Genus)

Orthothecida (Order) Marek, 1966

Pentamerida (Order)

Pentameridina (Suborder)

Pentameroidea (Superfamily)

Plectambonitoidea (Superfamily)

Plectorthoidea (Superfamily)

Polyplacophora (Class) Blainville, 1816 - chitons

Protorthida (Order)

Pterobranchia (Class) - pterobranchs

Pycnogonida (Class) Latreille, 1810 - pycnogonids

Rhynchonellata (Class)

Rhynchonellida (Order)

Rhynchonelliformea (Subphylum)

Rhynchotrematoidea (Superfamily)

Rugosa (Order) Milne-Edwards & Haime, 1850

Scyphozoa (Class) - jellyfish

Skenidioidea (Superfamily) Kozlowski, 1929

Spiriferida (Order) Waagen, 1883

Spiriferidina (Suborder) Waagen, 1883

Stenolaemata (Class)

Strophomenata (Class)

Strophomenida (Order) Opik, 1934

Strophomenoidea (Superfamily)

Syntrophiidina (Suborder)

Tabulata (Order)

Trepostomata (Order) Ulrich, 1882

Trimerellida (Order)

Trimerelloidea (Superfamily)

Triplesiidina (Suborder)

Triplesioidea (Superfamily)

Tubuliporata (Order)

Zoantharia (Subclass)

Animals (2)

Within limits:

Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 - animals

Chordata (Phylum) Bateson, 1885 - chordates

Fungi (2)

Within limits:

Fungi (Kingdom) R.T. Moore (1980) - fungi

Glomeromycota (Phylum) C. Walker & A. Schüßler (2001) - arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Plants (1)

Within limits:

Plantae (Kingdom) Haeckel (1866) - plants

Algae (35)

Lower limit:

Comasphaeridium (Genus) Staplin, Jansonius & Pocock, 1965

Comasphaeridium williereae (Deflandre & Deflandre-Rigaud, 1965 ex Lister, 1970) Sarjeant & Stancliffe (1994)

Dateriocradus (Genus) Tappan & Loeblich, 1972

Dateriocradus monterrosae (Cramer, 1969) Pöthé de Baldis (1981)

Within limits:

Buedingiisphaeridium (Genus) Schaarschmidt, 1963 emend. Lister, 1970 emend. Sarjeant & Stancliffe, 1994

Charales (Order) Lindley (1836) - charophytes sensu stricto

Charales (Order) Lindley (1836) - stoneworts

Comasphaeridium brevispinosum (Lister, 1970) Mullins (2001)

Cymatiosphaera multisepta Deunff (1955)

Cymatiosphaera octoplana Downie (1959)

Cymbosphaeridium (Genus) Lister, 1970

Cymbosphaeridium pilar (Cramer, 1964) Lister (1970)

Dasycladaceae (Family) Kützing (1843)

Dasycladales (Order) Pascher (1931)

Dictyotidium biscutulatum Kiryanov (1978)

Dictyotidium faviforme Schultz (1967)

Diexallophasis (Genus) Loeblich, 1970

Diexallophasis remota (Deunff, 1955)

Dorsennidium (Genus) Wicander, 1974

Dorsennidium europaeum (Stockmans & Willière, 1960) Sarjeant & Stancliffe (1994)

Dorsennidium europaeum subsp. europaeum (Stockmans & Willière, 1960) Sarjeant & Stancliffe (1994)

Dorsennidium europaeum subsp. wenlockianum (Downie, 1959 ex Wall & Downie, 1963) Sarjeant & Stancliffe (1994)

Duvernaysphaera aranaides (Cramer, 1964) Le Hérissé (1989)

Eisenackidium (Genus) Cramer & Díez, 1968 ex Eisenack, Cramer & Díez, 1973

Eupoikilofusa (Genus) Cramer, 1970

Gorgonisphaeridium (Genus) Staplin, Jansonius & Pocock, 1965

Hapsidopalla (Genus) Playford, 1977

Micrhystridium (Genus) Deflandre, 1937

Multiplicisphaeridium (Genus) Staplin, 1961

Neoveryhachium (Genus) Cramer, 1970

Neoveryhachium carminae (Cramer, 1964)

Onondagella (Genus) Cramer, 1966

Oppilatala (Genus) Loeblich & Wicander, 1976

Quadratitum fantasticum Cramer (1964)

Tunisphaeridium (Genus) J. Deunff & W.R. Evitt, 1968

Protozoa (34)

Upper limit:

Cyathochitina (Genus) Eisenack,1955

Spinachitina (Genus) Schallreuter, 1963

Spinachitininae (Subfamily) Paris, 1981

Within limits:

Acritarcha (Group) Evitt, 1963 - acritarchs

Ancyrochitina (Genus) Eisenack, 1955

Ancyrochitininae (Subfamily) Paris, 1981

Angochitina (Genus) Eisenack, 1931

Angochitininae (Subfamily) Paris, 1981

Armoricochitina (Genus) Paris, 1981

Bursachitina (Genus) Taugourdeau, 1966

Calpichitina (Genus) Wilson & Hedlund, 1964

Chitinozoa Eisenack, 1931 - chitinozoans

Cingulochitina (Genus) Paris, 1981

Cyathochitininae (Subfamily) Paris, 1981

Desmochitina (Genus) Eisenack, 1931

Desmochitinidae (Family) Eisenack, 1931

Desmochitininae (Subfamily) Eisenack, 1931

Eisenackitina (Genus) Jansonius, 1964

Fungochitina (Genus) Taugourdeau, 1966

Lagenochitina (Genus) Eisenack, 1931

Lagenochitinidae (Family) Eisenack, 1931

Lagenochitininae (Subfamily) Eisenack, 1931

Linochitina (Genus) Eisenack, 1968

Margachitina (Genus) Eisenack, 1968

Margachitininae (Subfamily) Paris, 1981

Operculatifera (Order) Eisenack, 1931

Paleodictyon (Genus) Menghini, 1850

Prosomatifera (Order) Eisenack, 1972

Pterochitina (Genus) Eisenack, 1955

Pterochitininae (Subfamily) Paris, 1981

Ramochitina (Genus) Sommer & van Boekel, 1964

Sphaerochitina (Genus) Eisenack,1955

Spirotrichea (Class) Bütschli, 1889

Urnochitina (Genus) Paris, 1981

Eukaryotes (1)

Within limits:

Eukaryota (Domain) Chatton, 1925 - eukaryotes

Prokaryotes (1)

Within limits:

Cyanobacteria (Phylum) (ex Stanier 1974) Cavalier-Smith 2002 - cyanobacteria

Organisms (1)

Within limits:

Biota ([unranked])

Geological regions (52)

Within limits:

Aldan Shield (Geologic province)

Anabar Shield ([unranked])

Arabian-Nubian Shield ([unranked])

Armorica ([unranked])

Baikal Fold Belt ([unranked])

Baltic Shield ([unranked])

Cameroon N'tem Complex ([unranked])

Central Africa Craton ([unranked])

Chaillu Craton ([unranked])

Committee Bay Block ([unranked])

Congo Craton ([unranked])

Ethiopian Block ([unranked])

Euramerica ([unranked])

Gondwana ([unranked]) E. Suess, 1861

Greenland Shield (Geologic province)

Guapore Craton ([unranked])

Guiana Shield ([unranked])

Indian Shield (Geologic province)

Kaapvaal Craton ([unranked])

Kaminak Group ([unranked])

Kasaï Craton ([unranked])

Labrador Shield ([unranked])

Laurentia ([unranked])

Litchfield Complex ([unranked])

Luis Alves Massif ([unranked])

Madagascar Craton ([unranked])

Man Shield ([unranked])

Nanambu Complex ([unranked])

Pilbara Block (Geologic province)

Reguibat Shield ([unranked])

Rio de la Plata Craton ([unranked])

Rio de la Plata Massif ([unranked])

Rul Jungle Complex ([unranked])

São Francisco Craton ([unranked])

Sayan Fold Belt ([unranked])

Scottish Shield ([unranked])

Sebakwe Proto-Craton ([unranked])

Slave Craton ([unranked])

Slave Province ([unranked])

Superior Craton ([unranked])

Superior Province ([unranked])

Tanzanian Craton ([unranked])

Tarim Craton ([unranked])

Tuareg Shield ([unranked])

Ukrainian Shield (Geologic province)

West African Craton ([unranked])

Wyoming Province ([unranked])

Yangtze Craton ([unranked])

Yienisei Fold Belt ([unranked])

Yilgarn Block (Geologic province)

Zambian Block ([unranked])

Zimbabwe Craton ([unranked])

Geological entities (3)

Within limits:

Iapetus Ocean ([unranked])

Napier Complex ([unranked]) (Antarctica)

Proto-Tethys Ocean ([unranked])

Links

http://www.palaeos.com/Paleozoic/Silurian/Silurian.htm

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Last updated: 15 Jul 2019