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Taxon: Phylum Porifera Grant, 1836 - sponges (sponge)
 Entity: 

Concise hierarchy

(Kingdom) Animalia

Current position

Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: Z.-Q. Zhang, 2013: 6.

Alternative positions

Animalia ([unranked]) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: E.J. van Nieukerken, 2010: 111.
Cœlentera ([unranked]) Ref: E.R. Lankester, 1877: 441.
Metazoa ([unranked]) Haeckel 1874 Ref: G. Giribet & G.D. Edgecombe, 2019: 168 (fig. 1a). [inferred rank]
Metazoa (Kingdom) Haeckel, 1874 Ref: E.E. Ruppert et al., 2004: 77.
N.N. (Subkingdom) Ref: M.A. Ruggiero et al., 2015b: table 2 (p. 35).
Parazoa (Superphylum) Sollas, 1884 Ref: J.N.A. Hooper & R.W.M. van Soest, 2002: 9. [indirect]
Parazoa (Branch) (Sollas, 1884) Ref: T.I. Storer et al., 1979: 319.
Parazoa ([unranked]) (Sollas, 1884) Ref: R.C. Brusca & G.J. Brusca, 1990: 48.
Parazoa (Subkingdom) (Sollas, 1884) Ref: L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz, 1998: 214-217.
Spongiaria (Infrakingdom) De Blainville, 1816 Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998: 235.

Original entries

Calcispongiae (Subphylum) (Blainville, 1834) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
Hyalospongiae (Subphylum) (Vosmaer, 1886) Cavalier-Smith, 1998

Historical positions

Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: T. Rees et al., 2020: table 2 (p. 131).
Metazoa ([unranked]) Haeckel 1874 Ref: G. Giribet & G.D. Edgecombe, 2019: 168 (fig. 1c). [inferred rank]
N.N. (Subkingdom) Ref: M.A. Ruggiero et al., 2015b: table 2 (p. 35).
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: Z.-Q. Zhang, 2013: 6.
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: J.N.A. Hooper et al., 2011: 13.
Animalia ([unranked]) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: E.J. van Nieukerken, 2010: 111.
Metazoa ([unranked]) Haeckel 1874 Ref: E.E. Ruppert et al., 2004: 77-94, 96-97, figs. 5.17A-B, 5.19.
fossil marine animal genera (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: J.J. Sepkoski Jr., 2002: 33 (TREATISE Part E, 1955).
Metazoa ([unranked]) Haeckel 1874 Ref: K.J. Peterson & D.J. Eernisse, 2001: table 1 (p. 172); 171, 201.
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: C. Nielsen, 2001: 38-47, fig. 1.2.
organisms ([unranked]) Ref: R.W.M. van Soest, 2001: 85.
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: H.G. Hansson, 1999
Parazoa (Subkingdom) (Sollas, 1884) Ref: L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz, 1998: 214-217.
Spongiaria (Infrakingdom) De Blainville, 1816 Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998: table 4 (p. 235).
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: Anonymous, 1998
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: Anonymous, 1995
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: C. Nielsen, 1995
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: J.K. Rigby et al., 1993: [71]. [inferred rank]
metazoans ([unranked]) Haeckel 1874 Ref: S. Bengtson, 1992: table 23.5 (p. 1017).
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: R.C. Brusca & G.J. Brusca, 1990: 181-210; 4.
Parazoa ([unranked]) (Sollas, 1884) Ref: R.C. Brusca & G.J. Brusca, 1990: 48. [alternative position]
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: R.S. Boardman et al., 1987
Parazoa (Subkingdom) (Sollas, 1884) Ref: R.C. van Caenegem et al., 1980: 307.
Parazoa (Subkingdom) (Sollas, 1884) Ref: W.D. Hartman, 1982: 641-642.
Parazoa (Subkingdom) (Sollas, 1884) Ref: L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz, 1982: 163, 168-169.
Parazoa (Branch) (Sollas, 1884) Ref: T.I. Storer et al., 1979: 319.
Cœlentera ([unranked]) Ref: E.R. Lankester, 1877: 441, 442.

Ancestor

Choanozoa (Subphylum) Cavalier-Smith, 1981 Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998: 239

Number of Subtaxa

2022 Available in Systema Naturae 2000 4c;26o;138f;710g;365s;15ss;3v; †5c;24o;288f;1277g;223s
1989-present Systema Naturae 2000: 10 Mar 2015 [4c;23o;140f;729g]
R.W.M. van Soest et al.: [8 Mar 2015] [4c;23o;140f;729g]
2020 T. Rees et al.: table 2 (p. 131) 5,435*ng;2,197[-3,856]*g; †64.6%g
2015b M.A. Ruggiero et al.: table 2 (p. 36) [4c;24o]
2013 Z.-Q. Zhang: 6 (incl. footnote 4) 10,876*[8,659]s; †58o;211f;2,046g;2,217s
2011 Z.-Q. Zhang: 9 8346s
2011 J.N.A. Hooper et al.: 13 (footnote 1), 18 4c;25o;138f;722g;8,346s; †4[1]c;34o;191f;1032g (; †3f;46g incertae sedis)
2011 Z.-Q. Zhang: 9 8346s
2004a J.K. Rigby: 1 [3c;29o]; †[1c;9o;134f];1,183g
2002 J.N.A. Hooper & R.W.M. van Soest 3c;7sc;24o;127f;682g;~7000s; †6c;30o;245f;998g
2000 4c
1998 T. Cavalier-Smith [2sp; †1sp]
1997 TAMU 800g10,001s; †1,000g
1995 C. Nielsen ~5,000s
1990 R.C. Brusca & G.J. Brusca ~9,000s
1982 W.D. Hartman [4c28o107f]
1982 L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz 4c10,000s
1979 T.I. Storer et al. [4c]
1877 E.R. Lankester: 442 [3c]
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Last updated: 4 Aug 2022