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Under construction
Apomorphy-based clade: Spiralia Schleip, 1929 - spiralians (invertebrate)
 Entity: 

Concise hierarchy

(Kingdom) Animalia

Current position

Protostomia ([unranked]) Grobben, 1908 Ref: G. Giribet & G.D. Edgecombe, 2019: 168 (fig. 1b).

Alternative positions

Bilateria ([unranked]) Hatschek, 1888 Ref: G. Giribet et al., 2000: 550.
Gastroneuralia ([unranked]) Ulrich, 1951
Lophotrochozoa (Clade) Halanych, Bacheller, Aguinaldo, Liva, Hillis & Lake 1995 Ref: E.J. van Nieukerken, 2010: 120.
protostomes (Clade) Ref: F. Marl├ętaz et al., 2019: 5 (fig. 3).

Historical positions

protostomes (Clade) Ref: F. Marl├ętaz et al., 2019: 5 (fig. 3).
Protostomia ([unranked]) Grobben, 1908 Ref: G. Giribet & G.D. Edgecombe, 2019: 168 (fig. 1c).
bilaterians ([unranked]) Hatschek, 1888 Ref: T.-M. Lu et al., 2017: 2, 6 (fig. 4a).
Protostomia ([unranked]) Grobben, 1908 Ref: M.J. Benton, 2015: fig. 1.6 (G. Edgecombe). [out of scope (coherent)]
Lophotrochozoa (Clade) Halanych, Bacheller, Aguinaldo, Liva, Hillis & Lake 1995 Ref: E.J. van Nieukerken, 2010: 120.
Lophotrochozoa (Clade) Halanych, Bacheller, Aguinaldo, Liva, Hillis & Lake 1995 Ref: E.E. Ruppert et al., 2004: fig. 9.26B.
Lophotrochozoa (Clade) Halanych, Bacheller, Aguinaldo, Liva, Hillis & Lake 1995 Ref: K.J. Peterson & D.J. Eernisse, 2001: 172.
Protostomia ([unranked]) Grobben, 1908 Ref: C. Nielsen, 2001: 123-133, figs. 1.2, 9.1.
Bilateria ([unranked]) Hatschek, 1888 Ref: G. Giribet et al., 2000: 550, 557.
Protostomia ([unranked]) Grobben, 1908 Ref: C. Nielsen, 1995

Number of Subtaxa

1989-present Systema Naturae 2000: 24 May 2016 [9p;22c]
2015 M.J. Benton: fig. 1.6 (G. Edgecombe) [13p]
2010 E.J. van Nieukerken [8p]
2001 K.J. Peterson & D.J. Eernisse [11p]
2000 G. Giribet et al. [14p]
1995 C. Nielsen [10p]
©2004-2024 Universal Taxonomic Services
Last updated: 1 Feb 2024