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Node-based clade: Class Aves Linnaeus, 1758 - birds (bird)
 Entity: 

Concise hierarchy

(Kingdom) Animalia - (Phylum) Chordata

Current position

Avialae (Clade) Gauthier 1986 [Gauthier 1986] Ref: J.K. O'Connor et al., 2010: 312. [indirect]

Alternative positions

Gnathostomata (Superclass) Zittel, 1879 Ref: R.C. van Caenegem et al., 1980: 307.
Homotherma (Superclass) Ref: L.B. Halstead, 1974: 172.
Maniraptora (Infradivision) Gauthier, 1986 Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 397.
Monocondyla (Branch) Ref: E.R. Lankester, 1877: 450.
Ornithomorpha ([unranked]) Seeley, 1891 Ref: Seeley, 1891 [inferred name]
Regnum Animale (Kingdom) C. Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: [von] Linné, C., 1766: 109.
Tetrapoda (Superclass) Goodrich, 1930 Ref: L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz, 1982: 239.
Vertebrata (Subphylum) Cuvier, 1812 Ref: A.S. Romer & T.S. Parsons, 1986: App. 1 (p. 623).

Original position

Regnum Animale (Kingdom) C. Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1758: 11

Subsequent positions

Tetrapoda (Superclass) Goodrich, 1930

Original entries

Accipitres (Order) Linnaeus, 1758
Anseres (Order) Linnaeus, 1758
Gallinae (Order) Linnaeus, 1758
Grallae (Order) Linnaeus, 1758
Jeholornithiformes (Order) Zhou & Zhang, 2006 Ref: Z. Zhou & F. Zhang, 2006: 78
Passeres (Order) Linnaeus, 1758
Picae (Order) Linnaeus, 1758
Sapeornithiformes (Order) Zhou & Zhang, 2006 Ref: Z. Zhou & F. Zhang, 2006: 78

Historical positions

Chordata (Phylum) Bateson, 1885 Ref: T. Rees et al., 2020: table 2 (p. 131).
Maniraptora (Infradivision) Gauthier, 1986 Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 397, 398, boxes 8.5, 9.2.
Chordata ([unranked]) Bateson, 1885 Ref: J.J. Sepkoski Jr., 2002: 320.
Vertebrata (Subphylum) Cuvier, 1812 Ref: 2000
Vertebrata (Subphylum) Cuvier, 1812 Ref: Anonymous, 1998
Vertebrata (Subphylum) Cuvier, 1812 Ref: Anonymous, 1995
Chordata (Phylum) Bateson, 1885 Ref: C.M. Perrins, 1991 (1990): 19.
Vertebrata (Subphylum) Cuvier, 1812 Ref: R.C. Brusca & G.J. Brusca, 1990 [unofficial]
Amniota ([unranked]) Haeckel, 1866 Ref: R.L. Carroll, 1988: 624, fig. 1.3.
Sauropsida ([unranked]) Huxley, 1864 Ref: R.L. Carroll, 1988: fig. 1.3. [alternative position]
Vertebrata (Subphylum) Cuvier, 1812 Ref: A.S. Romer & T.S. Parsons, 1986: App. 1 (p. 623).
Gnathostomata (Superclass) Zittel, 1879 Ref: R.C. van Caenegem et al., 1980: 307.
Vertebrata (Subphylum) Cuvier, 1812 Ref: W.J. Bock, 1982: 967.
Tetrapoda (Superclass) Goodrich, 1930 Ref: L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz, 1982: 239.
Tetrapoda (Superclass) Goodrich, 1930 Ref: T.I. Storer et al., 1979: 327, [744]-774.
Vertebrata (Subphylum) Cuvier, 1812 Ref: B. Grzimek et al., 1973 (1968): 569.
Homotherma (Superclass) Ref: L.B. Halstead, 1974: 172.
Monocondyla (Branch) Ref: E.R. Lankester, 1877: 450, 453.
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: C. Illiger, 1811: [194].
Regnum Animale (Kingdom) C. Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: C. a Linné, 1766: 19, 109-120.
Regnum Animale (Kingdom) C. Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1758: 12, 78-85.

Phylogeny

Holophyletic Ref: R.L. Carroll, 1988: [16].

Number of Subtaxa

2022 Available in Systema Naturae 2000 †4o;4f
1989-present Systema Naturae 2000 [31o;201f;2135g;9609s]
2020 T. Rees et al.: table 2 (p. 131) 13,481*ng;2,589[-7,951]*g; †10.9%g
2008 FC. Zhang et al. 23o;144f;2047g;9684s
2005 M.J. Benton [27o]
2001 2,091g9,944s
1993 B.L. Monroe Jr. & C.G. Sibley: 1 [23o;144f];2063[2043]g;9702[9628]s; ‡[1f;21g;74s]
1991 (1990) C.M. Perrins 28o176f9,541s
1990 23o142f; †1f
1988 R.L. Carroll: 627 [27o;>98f; ‡2o;3f; †6o;[>]37f]
1982 L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz <9,000s
1982 W.J. Bock 1sc;3So;29o;[171f];9021s; ‡1f; †1sc;1So
1979 T.I. Storer et al. ~8,700s
1963 P. Brodkorb 23o;144f;2047g;9684s
1877 E.R. Lankester: 453 [3o]
1766 C. a Linné [6o;78g]
1758 C. Linnaeus [6o;63g;554s]
???? 2114g9964s
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Last updated: 9 Feb 2022