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Taxon: Genus Larus Linnaeus, 1758 (bird)
Classification by:

Natura - nature
   actualia - actual entities
     Mundus Plinius - physical world
       naturalia - natural bodies
         Biota
           "neomura"
             Domain Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 - eukaryotes
               "neokaryotes" - mitochondrial eukaryotes
                 "neozoa"
                   "scotokaryotes" Cavalier-Smith, 1999
                     "podiates" Cavalier-Smith, 2013
                       Amorphea Adl et al., 2012
                         Opisthokonta Cavalier-Smith, 1987
                           Holozoa Lang, O'Kelly, Nerad, Gray & Burger, 2002
                             filozoa Shalchian-Tabrizi, Minge, Espelund, Orr, Ruden, Jakobsen & Cavalier-Smith, 2008
                               Kingdom Animalia Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
                                 Planulozoa Wallberg, Thollesson, Farris & Jondelius 2004 [nom. cl. nov.]
                                   Subkingdom Bilateria Hatschek, 1888 - bilaterians
                                     Nephrozoa Jondelius, Ruiz-Trillo, Baguñà & Riutort 2002 [nom. cl. nov.]
                                       Infrakingdom Deuterostomia Grobben, 1908
                                         Phylum Chordata Bateson, 1885 - chordates
                                           Subphylum Vertebrata Cuvier, 1812 - vertebrates
                                             [crown] Myopterygii - myopterygians
                                               Superclass Gnathostomata Zittel, 1879 - jawed vertebrates
                                                 Grade Teleostomi Bonaparte, 1836
                                                   Euteleostomi - bony vertebrates
                                                     Sarcopterygii Romer, 1955
                                                       Rhipidistia Cope, 1887
                                                         Tetrapodomorpha Ahlberg, 1991
                                                           Osteolepidimorpha
                                                             Tetrapoda Goodrich, 1930
                                                               Reptiliomorpha Säve-Söderbergh, 1934
                                                                 Batrachosauria
                                                                   Amniota Haeckel, 1866 - amniotes
                                                                     Class Reptilia Linnaeus, 1758 - reptiles
                                                                       Eureptilia Olson, 1947
                                                                         Romeriida Gauthier, Kluge & Rowe, 1988
                                                                           Diapsida Osborn 1903 [Laurin 1991]
                                                                             Neodiapsida Benton 1985 [Laurin 1991] {Reisz, Modesto & Scott 2011}
                                                                               [crown] Sauria McCartney 1802 [Gauthier, Kluge & Rowe 1988]
                                                                                 Archosauromorpha Huene 1946 [Gauthier, Kluge & Rowe 1988] {Laurin 1991}
                                                                                   Archosauria Cope 1869 [Gauthier & Padian 1985]
                                                                                     Avesuchia Benton, 1999
                                                                                       Avemetatarsalia Benton 1999
                                                                                         Ornithodira Gauthier 1986
                                                                                           Dinosauromorpha Benton 1985
                                                                                             Dinosauriformes Novas 1992
                                                                                               Dinosauria Owen 1841
                                                                                                 Saurischia Seeley 1887 [Gauthier 1986]
                                                                                                   Theropoda Marsh 1881 [Gauthier 1986]
                                                                                                     Neotheropoda Bakker 1986 [Sereno 1998]
                                                                                                       Averostra Paul 2002 [Paul 2002]
                                                                                                         Tetanurae Gauthier 1986 [Gauthier 1986]
                                                                                                           Orionides Carrano, Benson & Sampson 2012 [Carrano et al. 2012]
                                                                                                             Avetheropoda Paul 1988 [Padian et al. 1999]
                                                                                                               Coelurosauria Huene 1914 [Gauthier 1986]
                                                                                                                 Tyrannoraptora Sereno 1999 [Sereno 1999]
                                                                                                                   Maniraptoriformes Holtz 1995 [Holtz 1996]
                                                                                                                     Maniraptora Gauthier 1986 [Gauthier 1986]
                                                                                                                       Pennaraptora Foth et al. 2014 [Foth et al. 2014]
                                                                                                                         Paraves Sereno 1997 [Sereno 1998]
                                                                                                                           Avialae Gauthier 1986 [Gauthier 1986]
                                                                                                                             Subclass Aves Linnaeus, 1758
                                                                                                                               Pygostylia Chatterjee 1997 [Chiappe 2001]
                                                                                                                                 Ornithothoraces Chiappe 1995 [Chiappe 1995]
                                                                                                                                   Ornithuromorpha Chiappe 2001 [Chiappe 2001]
                                                                                                                                     Ornithurae Haeckel 1866 [Gauthier 1986] {Chiappe 1991}
                                                                                                                                       Carinatae Merrem 1813 [Gauthier & de Queiroz 2001]
                                                                                                                                         [crown] Neornithes - living birds
                                                                                                                                           Cohort Neognathae Pycraft, 1900
                                                                                                                                             Subcohort Neoaves Sibley et al., 1988
                                                                                                                                               Division Terrestrornithes B.C. Livezey & R.L. Zusi, 2007
                                                                                                                                                 Subdivision Telmatorae Lowe, 1931 [monotypic]
                                                                                                                                                   Superorder Charadriimorphae Huxley, 1867
                                                                                                                                                     Order Charadriiformes Huxley, 1867 - shorebirds, gulls, auks
                                                                                                                                                       Suborder Lari Sharpe, 1891 - gulls and allies
                                                                                                                                                         Infraorder Larides Sharpe, 1891
                                                                                                                                                           Superfamily Laroidea Vigors, 1825
                                                                                                                                                             Family Laridae Vigors, 1825 - gulls, terns and skimmers
                                                                                                                                                               Subfamily Larinae Vigors, 1825 - gulls
                                                                                                                                                                 Genus Larus Linnaeus, 1758
                                                                                                                                                                   01 Larus pacificus Latham, 1802 - Pacific gull
                                                                                                                                                                   02 Larus belcheri Vigors, 1829 - band-tailed gull
                                                                                                                                                                   03 Larus atlanticus Olrog, 1958 - Olrog's gull
                                                                                                                                                                   04 Larus crassirostris Vieillot, 1818 - black-tailed gull
                                                                                                                                                                   05 Larus modestus Tschudi, 1843 - grey gull
                                                                                                                                                                   06 Larus heermanni Cassin, 1852 - Heermann's gull
                                                                                                                                                                   07 Larus leucophthalmus Temminck, 1825 - white-eyed gull
                                                                                                                                                                   08 Larus hemprichii Bruch, 1853 - sooty gull
                                                                                                                                                                   09 Larus canus Linnaeus, 1758 - mew gull
                                                                                                                                                                   10 Larus audouinii Payraudeau, 1826 - Audouin's gull
                                                                                                                                                                   11 Larus delawarensis Ord, 1815 - ring-billed gull
                                                                                                                                                                   12 Larus californicus Lawrence, 1854 - California gull
                                                                                                                                                                   13 Larus marinus Linnaeus, 1758 - great black-backed gull
                                                                                                                                                                   14 Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 - kelp gull
                                                                                                                                                                   15 Larus glaucescens Naumann, 1840 - glaucous-winged gull
                                                                                                                                                                   16.1 Larus occidentalis Audubon, 1839 - western gull
                                                                                                                                                                   16.2 Larus livens Dwight, 1919 - yellow-footed gull
                                                                                                                                                                   17 Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus, 1767 - glaucous gull
                                                                                                                                                                   18.1 Larus glaucoides Meyer, 1822 - Iceland gull
                                                                                                                                                                   18.2 Larus thayeri Brooks, 1915 - Thayer's gull
                                                                                                                                                                   19.1 Larus argentatus Pontoppidan, 1763 - herring gull
                                                                                                                                                                   19.2 Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811 - yellow-legged gull
                                                                                                                                                                   20 Larus armenicus Buturlin, 1934 - Armenian gull
                                                                                                                                                                   21 Larus schistisagus Stejneger, 1884 - slaty-backed gull
                                                                                                                                                                   22 Larus fuscus Linnaeus, 1758 - lesser black-backed gull
                                                                                                                                                                   23 Larus ichthyaetus Pallas, 1773 - great black-headed gull
                                                                                                                                                                   24 Larus brunnicephalus Jerdon, 1840 - brown-headed gull
                                                                                                                                                                   25 Larus cirrocephalus Vieillot, 1818 - grey-headed gull
                                                                                                                                                                   26 Larus hartlaubii Bruch, 1853 - king gull
                                                                                                                                                                   27 Larus novaehollandiae Stephens, 1826 - silver gull
                                                                                                                                                                   28 Larus bulleri Hutton, 1871 - black-billed gull
                                                                                                                                                                   29 Larus maculipennis Lichtenstein, 1823 - brown-hooded gull
                                                                                                                                                                   30 Larus ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766 - common black-headed gull
                                                                                                                                                                   31 Larus genei Brème, 1839 - slender-billed gull
                                                                                                                                                                   32 Larus philadelphia (Ord, 1815) - Bonaparte's gull
                                                                                                                                                                   33 Larus saundersi (Swinhoe, 1871) - Saunders's gull
                                                                                                                                                                   34 Larus serranus Tschudi, 1844 - Andean gull
                                                                                                                                                                   35 Larus melanocephalus Temminck, 1820 - Mediterranean gull
                                                                                                                                                                   36 Larus relictus Lönnberg, 1931 - relict gull
                                                                                                                                                                   37 Larus fuliginosus Gould, 1841 - lava gull
                                                                                                                                                                   38 Larus atricilla Linnaeus, 1758 - laughing gull
                                                                                                                                                                   39 Larus pipixcan Wagler, 1831 - Franklin's gull
                                                                                                                                                                   40 Larus minutus Pallas, 1776 - little gull

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Last updated: 15 Jul 2019