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Taxon: Order Perissodactyla Owen, 1848 - odd-toed ungulates (mammal)
 Entity: 

Concise hierarchy

(Kingdom) Animalia - (Phylum) Chordata - (Class) Mammalia

Current position

Euungulata (Grandorder) Waddell, Kishino & Ota, 2001 Ref: G.A. Feldhamer et al., 2020: table 10.1 (p. [226]).

Alternative positions

Altungulata (Mirorder) Prothero & Schoch, 1989 Ref: M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997: 469. [new position]
Eutheria (Infraclass) Gill, 1872 Ref: R.L. Carroll, 1988: 644.
Euungulata (Clade) Waddell, Kishino & Ota 2001 Ref: X. Zhou et al., 2012: 152
Fereuungulata (Clade) Waddell, Cao, Hauf & Hasegawa 1999 Ref: H. Nishihara et al., 2006: 9929. [excluded]
Ferungulata (Mirorder) Simpson, 1945 Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 402.
Laurasiatheria (Superorder) Waddell, Okada & Hasegawa, 1999 Ref: C.J. Burgin et al., 2020: table 2 (p. 27).
Mammalia (Class) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: P. Grubb, 1993: 369.
Mesaxonia (Superorder) (Marsh, 1884) Ref: G.G. Simpson, 1945
Pegasoferae (Superorder) Nishihara, Hasegawa & Okada, 2006 Ref: M.J. Benton, 2015: 445.
Pegasoferae (Clade) Nishihara, Hasegawa & Okada 2006 Ref: H. Nishihara et al., 2006: fig. 2. [new position]
Placentalia (Infraclass) Owen, 1837 Ref: D.E. Wilson & D.M. Reeder, 2011: 59.
Ungulata (Subclass) (Linnaeus, 1766) Ref: E.R. Lankester, 1877: 454.
Ungulata (Superorder) Linnaeus, 1766 Ref: R.L. Carroll, 1988: table A-1 (p. 629) (Novacek, 1986). [by reference]

Subsequent positions

Altungulata (Mirorder) Prothero & Schoch, 1989 Ref: M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997: 469
Pegasoferae (Clade) Nishihara, Hasegawa & Okada 2006 Ref: H. Nishihara et al., 2006: 9933

Original entries

Ancylopoda (Suborder) Cope, 1889
Ceratomorpha (Suborder) Wood, 1937
Hallensia (Genus) Franzen & Haubold, 1986
Hippomorpha (Suborder) Wood, 1937

Subsequent entries

Schizotheroides (Genus) Hough, 1955 Ref: M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997: 469

Historical positions

Laurasiatheria (Superorder) Waddell, Okada & Hasegawa, 1999 Ref: C.J. Burgin et al., 2020: table 2 (p. 27).
Pegasoferae (Superorder) Nishihara, Hasegawa & Okada, 2006 Ref: M.J. Benton, 2015: 445.
Placentalia (Infraclass) Owen, 1837 Ref: D.E. Wilson & D.M. Reeder, 2011: 59.
Pegasoferae (Clade) Nishihara, Hasegawa & Okada 2006 Ref: H. Nishihara et al., 2006: 9929, 9931, 9933, fig. 2. [new position]
Fereuungulata (Clade) Waddell, Cao, Hauf & Hasegawa 1999 Ref: H. Nishihara et al., 2006: 9929. [excluded]
Euungulata (Clade) Waddell, Kishino & Ota 2001 Ref: H. Nishihara et al., 2006: 9929. [excluded]
Theria (Subclass) Parker & Haswell, 1897 Ref: P. Grubb, 2005: 629.
Ferungulata (Mirorder) Simpson, 1945 Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 402, box 10.6.
Altungulata (Mirorder) Prothero & Schoch, 1989 Ref: M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997: 469. [new position]
Mammalia (Class) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: Anonymous, 1995
Mammalia (Class) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: P. Grubb, 1993: 369; 6.
Mammalia (Class) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: G.B. Corbet & J.E. Hill, 1991: 123.
Mammalia (Class) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: R.M. Nowak, 1991
Eutheria (Infraclass) Gill, 1872 Ref: R.L. Carroll, 1988: 644.
Ungulata (Superorder) Linnaeus, 1766 Ref: R.L. Carroll, 1988: table A-1 (p. 629) (Novacek, 1986). [by reference]
Eutheria (Infraclass) Gill, 1872 Ref: A.S. Romer & T.S. Parsons, 1986: 626.
Eutheria (Infraclass) Gill, 1872 Ref: A.F. DeBlase, 1982: 1056-1057.
Eutheria (Infraclass) Gill, 1872 Ref: T.I. Storer et al., 1979
Mesaxonia (Superorder) (Marsh, 1884) Ref: R. Altevogt et al., 1973 (1972): 702.
Eutheria (Infraclass) Gill, 1872 Ref: L.B. Halstead, 1974: 172.
Mesaxonia (Superorder) (Marsh, 1884) Ref: G.G. Simpson, 1945
Ungulata (Subclass) (Linnaeus, 1766) Ref: E.R. Lankester, 1877: 454.

Included, by definition, in node-based clade

Euungulata (Clade) Waddell, Kishino & Ota 2001 Ref: P.J. Waddell et al., 2001: 148
Fereuungulata (Clade) Waddell, Cao, Hauf & Hasegawa 1999 Ref: P.J. Waddell et al., 1999b: 50
Scrotifera (Clade) Waddell, Cao, Hauf & Hasegawa 1999 Ref: P.J. Waddell et al., 1999b: 50
Variamana (Clade) Springer, Murphy, Eizirik, Madsen, Scally, Douady, Teeling, Stanhope, de Jong & O'Brien 2007 Ref: M.S. Springer et al., 2007: table 5 (p. 21 note 4)

Number of Subtaxa

2022 Available in Systema Naturae 2000 3f;6g;16s;41ss; ‡3g;1s;4ss; †13f;236g;93s;5ss
1989-present Systema Naturae 2000: 28 Jan 2015 [3f;6g;16s;41ss; ‡3g; †13f;236g]
2020 C.J. Burgin et al.: table 2 (p. 27) [3f]
2011 D.E. Wilson & D.M. Reeder: 59 3f
2005 P. Grubb: 636 [3f;6g;16s;41ss; ‡1s;3ss]
1997 M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell [3f;6g; ‡3g; †11f;235g]
1993 P. Grubb [3f];6g;18[17]s; ‡[1s]
1991 G.B. Corbet & J.E. Hill [3f;6g];16[17]s; ‡[1s]
1988 R.L. Carroll: 645 [3f; †11f]
1982 A.F. DeBlase 3f;[6g;16s](; ‡1s)
1945 G.G. Simpson: [3f; †1f]
©2004-2022 Universal Taxonomic Services
Last updated: 4 Aug 2022