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Monotypic taxon: Order Sphenisciformes Sharpe, 1891 (bird)
 Entity: 

Concise hierarchy

(Kingdom) Animalia - (Phylum) Chordata - (Class) Reptilia

Current position

Procellariimorphae (Superorder) Fürbringer, 1888 Ref: B.C. Livezey & R.L. Zusi, 2007: 90.

Alternative positions

Aves (Class) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: J.J. Sepkoski Jr., 2002: 321.
Carinatae (Infraclass) Merrem, 1813 Ref: P. Brodkorb, 1963: 231. [new position]
Impennes (Superorder) Ref: W.J. Bock, 1982: 967.
Neognathae (Superorder) Pycraft, 1900 Ref: R.L. Carroll, 1988: 627.
Neornithes (Subclass) Gadow, 1893 Ref: B. Grzimek et al., 1973 (1968): 571.
unnamed (Infraorder) Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 399.

Subsequent positions

Carinatae (Infraclass) Merrem, 1813 Ref: P. Brodkorb, 1963: 231 [assumed]

Historical positions

Procellariimorphae (Superorder) Fürbringer, 1888 Ref: B.C. Livezey & R.L. Zusi, 2007: 90.
unnamed (Infraorder) Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 399, box 9.4.
Neoaves (Clade) Sibley et al. 1988 Ref: J. Cracraft et al., 2003: 17. [inferred rank]
Aves (Class) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: J.J. Sepkoski Jr., 2002: 321.
Aves (Class) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: Anonymous, 1995
Neognathae (Superorder) Pycraft, 1900 Ref: C.M. Perrins, 1991 (1990): 19, 367.
Neognathae (Superorder) Pycraft, 1900 Ref: R.L. Carroll, 1988: 627.
Impennes (Superorder) Ref: W.J. Bock, 1982: 967.
Neornithes (Subclass) Gadow, 1893 Ref: E. Mayr & G.W. Cottrell, 1979
Neognathae (Superorder) Pycraft, 1900 Ref: T.I. Storer et al., 1979
Neornithes (Subclass) Gadow, 1893 Ref: B. Grzimek et al., 1973 (1968): 571.
Carinatae (Infraclass) Merrem, 1813 Ref: P. Brodkorb, 1963: 231. [new position]

Ancestor

Procellariiformes (Order) Fürbringer, 1888 Ref: W.J. Bock, 1982: 967

Number of Subtaxa

2022 Available in Systema Naturae 2000 1f;6g;18s;10ss; ‡1s; †22g;1s
1989-present Systema Naturae 2000: 5 May 2015 [1f;6g;18s;10ss; †22g]
2007 B.C. Livezey & R.L. Zusi [1f]
2003 J. Cracraft et al. [1f;6g;17s]
1991 (1990) C.M. Perrins [1f;6g];17s
1988 R.L. Carroll: 627 [1f]
1982 W.J. Bock 1f;6g;18s
1979 T.I. Storer et al. 17s
1973 (1968) B. Grzimek et al. 1f6g17(18)s5ss; †17s
1963 P. Brodkorb [; †21g]
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Last updated: 4 Aug 2022