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Taxon: Phylum Echinodermata Bruguière, 1789 - echinoderms (echinoderm)
 Entity: 

Concise hierarchy

(Kingdom) Animalia

Current position

Ambulacraria (Clade) Metschnikoff 1881 [Halanych 1995] Ref: S.J. Bourlat et al., 2006: 86.

Alternative positions

Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: Z.-Q. Zhang, 2011: 10.
Brachiata ([unranked])
Coelomates (Grade) Hyman, 1951 Ref: R.C. Brusca & G.J. Brusca, 1990: 48.
Coelomopora (Infrakingdom) (Marcus, 1958) Cavalier-Smith, 1998 Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998: 237. [new position]
Coelomopora ([unranked]) Marcus, 1958 Ref: G. Giribet et al., 2000: 551.
Deuterostoma (Series) Ref: L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz, 1982: 230.
deuterostomes ([unranked]) Ref: L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz, 1998: 318-321.
Deuterostomia (Infrakingdom) Grobben, 1908 Ref: M.A. Ruggiero et al., 2015b: table 2 (p. 52).
Deuterostomia ([unranked]) Grobben, 1908 Ref: E.J. van Nieukerken, 2010: 280.
Deuterostomia (Subdivision) Grobben, 1908 Ref: T.I. Storer et al., 1979: 325.
Deuterostomia (Midphylum) Grobben, 1908 Ref: E. Möhn, 1984
Dexiothetica (Subsuperphylum) Jefferies, 1979 Ref: M.J. Benton, 1993: 531.
Eumetazoa (Subkingdom) Butschli, 1910 Ref: F.J. Fell, 1982: 785.
Metazoa (Kingdom) Haeckel, 1874
Metazoa (Subkingdom) Haeckel, 1874 Ref: R.C. van Caenegem et al., 1980: 307.
Neorenalia ([unranked]) (C. Nielsen, 1995) Ref: C. Nielsen, 2001: fig. 1.2.

Subsequent positions

Coelomopora (Infrakingdom) (Marcus, 1958) Cavalier-Smith, 1998 Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998: 237 [assumed]

Historical positions

Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: T. Rees et al., 2020: table 2 (p. 131).
Deuterostomia (Infrakingdom) Grobben, 1908 Ref: M.A. Ruggiero et al., 2015b: table 2 (p. 52).
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: Z.-Q. Zhang, 2011: 10.
Deuterostomia ([unranked]) Grobben, 1908 Ref: E.J. van Nieukerken, 2010: 280.
Ambulacraria (Clade) Metschnikoff 1881 [Halanych 1995] Ref: S.J. Bourlat et al., 2006: fig. 1; 85.
Deuterostomia (Superphylum) Grobben, 1908 Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 15. [unofficial]
Ambulacraria (Clade) Metschnikoff 1881 [Halanych 1995] Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 7, box. 1.1. [out of scope (coherent)]
Deuterostomia ([unranked]) Grobben, 1908 Ref: E.E. Ruppert et al., 2004: fig. 27.12B.
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: J.J. Sepkoski Jr., 2002: 269.
Ambulacraria (Clade) Metschnikoff 1881 [Halanych 1995] Ref: K.J. Peterson & D.J. Eernisse, 2001: 172, [176]; 205.
Neorenalia ([unranked]) (C. Nielsen, 1995) Ref: C. Nielsen, 2001: 419-436, fig. 1.2.
Biota (Clade) Wagner 2004, nom. cl. inval. Ref: H.G. Hansson, 2001: 336-337.
Coelomopora ([unranked]) Marcus, 1958 Ref: G. Giribet et al., 2000: 551, fig. 4; tab. 1.
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: Anonymous, 1998
deuterostomes ([unranked]) Ref: L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz, 1998: 318-321.
Coelomopora (Infrakingdom) (Marcus, 1958) Cavalier-Smith, 1998 Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998: table 4 (p. 237). [new position]
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: Anonymous, 1995
Neorenalia ([unranked]) (C. Nielsen, 1995) Ref: C. Nielsen, 1995
Dexiothetica (Subsuperphylum) Jefferies, 1979 Ref: M.J. Simms et al., 1993: [491]; 531.
Metazoa ([unranked]) Haeckel, 1874 Ref: S. Bengtson, 1992: table 23.5 (p. 1031).
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: R.C. Brusca & G.J. Brusca, 1990: 801-839; 4.
Coelomates (Grade) Hyman, 1951 Ref: R.C. Brusca & G.J. Brusca, 1990: 48. [alternative position]
Deuterostomia ([unranked]) Grobben, 1908 Ref: R.C. Brusca & G.J. Brusca, 1990: 118. [alternative position]
Animalia (Kingdom) Linnaeus, 1758 Ref: R.S. Boardman et al., 1987
Deuterostomia (Midphylum) Grobben, 1908 Ref: E. Möhn, 1984
Metazoa (Subkingdom) Haeckel, 1874 Ref: R.C. van Caenegem et al., 1980: 307.
Eumetazoa (Subkingdom) Butschli, 1910 Ref: F.J. Fell, 1982: 785-786.
Deuterostoma (Series) Ref: L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz, 1982: 230.
Deuterostomia (Subdivision) Grobben, 1908 Ref: T.I. Storer et al., 1979: 610-630; 325.
Bilateralia (Subdivision) Ref: B. Grzimek, 1973-1975

Number of Subtaxa

2021 Available in Systema Naturae 2000 6c;39o;154f;532g;355s;8ss;2v; †19c;46o;3f;73g;5s
1989-present Systema Naturae 2000 6c;39o;156f;7000s; †13,000s
2020 T. Rees et al.: table 2 (p. 131) 7,897*ng;4,031[-5,766]*g; †66.5%g
2011 Z.-Q. Zhang: 10 20,509[7509]s; †13,000s
2011 Z.-Q. Zhang: 10 20,509[7509]s; †13,000s
1998 T. Cavalier-Smith [3sp]
1997 TAMU 1,350g5,081s; †2,500g14,329s
1995 C. Nielsen 7000s; †13,000s
1995 C. Nielsen ~7,000s; †~13,000s
1990 R.C. Brusca & G.J. Brusca 7,000s; †13,000s
1987 R.S. Boardman et al. 5c6,000s; †15c
1982 F.J. Fell [3sp;4c;33o;145f]
1982 L. Margulis & K.V. Schwartz 5c6,000s
©2004-2020 Universal Taxonomic Services
Last updated: 29 Nov 2020